10 famous cryptocurrency quotes and what we can learn from them - read and don't look like a fool anymore :P
“If you don’t believe it or don’t get it, I don’t have the time to try to convince you, sorry.” – Satoshi Nakamoto This is an early quote from Satoshi Nakamoto to the Bitcoin doubters on the forums. Since those early days, a whole industry has been created around his invention. With hindsight, it is easy to say that perhaps people should have listened, but what was created was something entirely unique and therefore difficult for many to understand. A key aspect of this message is that to understand Bitcoin, you need to put the time and effort in to learn on your own. Mistakes can easily be made by trusting unscrupulous actors. “It’s money 2.0, a huge, huge, huge deal.” – Chamath Palihapitiya, venture capitalist Chamath Palihapitiya was an early employee at Facebook before moving on and setting up his own investment fund. By 2015, his fund had over $1.1 billion in assets, and he also became a minority shareholder of the Golden State Warriors NBA team. Despite stating he is a disciple of Warren Buffett, they do disagree on the notion of Bitcoin. Palihapitiya is a strong believer in the cryptocurrency. He believes that within the next 20 years, Bitcoin will rise to $1 million. “It’s a fraud” and “worse than tulip bulbs” – Jamie Dimon, CEO of JP Morgan Unsurprisingly, the boss of JP Morgan – Jamie Dimon – isn’t much of a fan of Bitcoin. This quote from Mr Dimon in 2017 was spoken during the most recent Bitcoin bubble. Since then however, JP Morgan has announced its own form of cryptocurrency, suggesting the banking titan isn’t as adverse to crypto as the quote suggests. One of Bitcoin’s main aims is to remove the need for such huge banks as JP Morgan, so it is unlikely that Jamie Dimon will ever change his mind. “Stay away from it. It’s a mirage, basically. In terms of cryptocurrencies, generally, I can say almost with certainty that they will come to a bad ending.” – Warren Buffett, legendary investor Coming back to the traditional finance sector, the fact that Buffet isn’t a fan of Bitcoin or cryptocurrencies in general is to be expected. Buffett’s fortune has been accumulated through traditional assets and a patient approach. The risk and volatility seen in cryptocurrencies would be an instant warning sign to the famous investor. Buffett has been notoriously adverse to upcoming technology stocks, so a punt on Bitcoin isn’t going to be happening any time soon. “I do think Bitcoin is the first [encrypted money] that has the potential to do something like change the world.” – Peter Thiel, co-founder of PayPal Peter Thiel and his team had a similar idea to Bitcoin when in the process of creating PayPal. However, at the time, they were unable to get their idea off the ground. Peter Thiel is now one of the largest venture capitalists in Silicon Valley and a staunch Randian. These two factors should show why he has an interest in Bitcoin. “Bitcoin actually has the balance and incentives center, and that is why it is starting to take off.” – Julian Assange, founder of Wikileaks Bitcoin and Wikileaks have a long relationship. Indeed, without Bitcoin, there may not be a Wikileaks as we know it. When the major credit card companies attempted to block payments to Wikileaks, the company asked for donations in Bitcoin instead, which allowed it to survive. Nakamoto was adverse to supporting Wikileaks due to the pressure it would put on the young network. Julian Assange himself is one of the earlier cypherpunks, regularly interacting with members on the CypherPunk mailing list from 1995. Ideas such as Bitcoin were common on the mailing list, so when Bitcoin was finally released, the fact that Wikileaks appropriated it is not surprising. “The Federal Reserve simply does not have authority to supervise or regulate Bitcoin in any way.” – Janet Yellen, former chair of the US Federal Reserve Janet Yellen highlights a key aspect of Bitcoin in her quote. Bitcoin is not a US cryptocurrency. Instead, it is the first truly global currency. It isn’t run by anyone in particular, but anyone who wants to get involved can do so. This makes it extremely difficult for the authorities to formulate regulations around Bitcoin. This also makes Bitcoin extremely difficult to stop. Many bans have been rumoured throughout the years, but this has never stopped Bitcoin from progressing. “Whereas most technologies tend to automate workers on the periphery doing menial tasks, blockchains automate away the center. Instead of putting the taxi driver out of a job, blockchain puts Uber out of a job and lets the taxi drivers work with the customer directly.” – Vitalik Buterin, co-founder of Ethereum Buterin’s quote recognises the removal of third parties that cryptocurrencies allow for. Instead of a company like Uber or say Dropbox taking a cut of the profits, this can all be managed in a peer-to-peer manner through cryptocurrencies. This increases the profits for you and me, reduces costs, and can help remove some of the largest corporations in the world in the hope of creating a fairer economy. “I see Bitcoin as ultimately becoming a reserve currency for banks, playing much the same role as gold did in the early days of banking. Banks could issue digital cash with greater anonymity and lighter weight, more efficient transactions.” – Hal Finney This early quote from Hal Finney shows that he understood the possibilities of Bitcoin from a very early stage. This was helped by the many discussions that took place on the CypherPunk mailing list in the 1990s, whereby digital currencies and issues of privacy were constantly discussed and philosophised. “Since we’re all rich with Bitcoins … we ought to put some of this unearned wealth to good use.” – Hal Finney Hal Finney is one of the few people involved in Bitcoin who is liked by everyone. Even Faketoshi has a soft spot for Finney. Sadly, Finney passed away before he could witness the beast that Bitcoin evolved into. Finney was an early contributor to the CypherPunk mailing list like Assange, and was instrumental in helping Bitcoin grow from day one. This quote above highlights what all who have become rich through Bitcoin should do – give back and help others.
Time to rotate out of a mid tier coin to one with better prospects?
I have some Ravencoin (RVN). I mined it in its early days, and accumulated a modest stake from a few months of mining. The Ravencoin network is, in essence, a fork of bitcoin that enables asset ownership and transfer. It has an active, fully decentralized set of devs that maintain the cypherpunk ethos of pre-2014 bitcoin. It’s been sitting in a wallet since then. At the height of interest in tokenization of RL assets last year, RVN traded at over 1400 sats. It’s now barely above 200 sats per coin. However, even at these prices, my position is profitable. Im weighing the value of this coin in my portfolio. I hold mostly ETH and BTC, but also some competing platform coins such as ADA and ALGO. Could those familiar with RVN offer perspective? - hold RVN & wait for sentiment and prices to improve - consolidate to an existing position - roll into a new coin ( would require time investment for DD) I also hold some Ripple stock acquired in a private investment deal, so I won’t consider their XRP coin.
Multicurrency Wallet DEXs will be the standard of the 2020s. The present status quo is an absolute joke.
Before I begin, I'd like to ask you a question. Why are so many of the most established people in crypto among the most closed-minded when it comes to talking about new ideas? Why is the crypto space more concerned with what a clown from Australia is lying about or petty figurehead drama than the hard work and effort of the good and lesser-known among them? Let's talk about altcoins for a minute. It'd be a very tough job to count every single alt that's come in on a hypetrain and died in obscurity. If I were to guess that 95% of them failed, I wouldn't be surprised to hear that it was a conservative estimate and that the number is even higher. Indeed, it would be much easier to count the exceptions to the rule. To name a few - ETH, LTC, XMR, and (quite amusingly) DOGE. Should the stubbornly high failure rate of alts justify writing them all off as garbage? Businesses have an incredibly high failure rate too. It would be foolish - outright silly, even - to say that the grocery store is a fraud and a scam because the aqua-saxophone jazzercise laundromat failed to live up to it's expectations. Maybe not, because this is exactly the way the crypto space is right now. That line of thinking is the de facto standard in the cryptocurrency space right now - "guilty (of being a shitcoin) until proven innocent (by some central authority figure or big exchange who can validate it for us so we don't have to do it ourselves)". To be fair, there was an aggressive torrent of these "goofy laundromats" in 2017 and people are either hungover or shell-shocked from all the broken pipedreams and costly fiction. You'd think that the titans of this industry, particularly those who care more about the cypherpunk essence of Bitcoin than how rich they can get off of it, would be more receptive to the legitimate projects that are working in obscurity to harden the crypto space and it's infrastructure. Unfortunately, that does not seem to be the case. All too many seem to think that everything that needed to be built has already been built. Considering that all the Bitcoin titans are somewhat newly-minted, the irony is remarkable. No one used to take Bitcoin seriously. The further back in time you go, the more it took lonely effort and independent research to truly grasp its ideas. This is still the case today. Most have heard of it but have no idea what it is or why it's important. Many who are fervently in PMs or traditional investments like stocks and bonds continue to deride it, even though it will go down as the best performing asset of the 2010s by far. Others are a little more aggressive and, despite a lack of knowledge, call it anything from a scam to "rat poison squared". Like anything else, it's foolish to make bold claims atop little to no education. You'd think that treatment would make Bitcoin maximalists do some reflecting. Instead, a sizable number of them decided to emulate the ones who beat up on Bitcoin when it was small and irrelevant. "All you need is Bitcoin. Everything else is trash. I know what I'm talking about because I bought the top of the 2013 bubble and I'm probably immune to future dumps for life". Now let's talk about where cryptocurrency infrastructure falls short. Bitcoin still retains the same cypherpunk essence that it's always had. The same can be said for Bitcoin wallets. They're secure. They allow for anonymous transactions. They run on an immutable blockchain. There is no central authority between a key-holder and their funds. Enter the exchanges. In a way, they were a necessary evil. Without them, adoption would be severely throttled. With them, Bitcoin is compromised. For many, the privacy and anonymity that BTC is supposed to offers has been tossed out. It was the only way it could be retrofitted into a tightly-controlled system that demands KYC. While this has helped to spread adoption, Bitcoin has become more and more traceable. Quite ironically, many of these same exchanges that adopted KYC policies to "ensure accountability from their customers" had no trouble exit scamming. They come and go. The old one gets hacked, or it exit scams, or proves itself to be corrupt and suspicious. A new one comes. This time it will be different. Then the cycle repeats itself. Mt. Gox. Bitfinex. Polo. Bittrex. Binance. They all had their time in the Sun. These exchanges are in many ways the antithesis of the cypherpunk manifesto - vulnerable honeypots directly controlled by a centralized figurehead. Unsurprisingly, they cause a lot of unneeded trouble and give Bitcoin a ton of bad publicity. Example:
Me: "What do you think of Bitcoin?" Co-worker: "Didn't that thing get hacked last week?" Me: "Bitcoin didn't, but a place where it was exchanged was." Co-worker: "I don't trust it. It's only a matter of time til they find out how to type in some numbers to make more show up on a screen blah blah blah."
You've all likely met someone like this and brushed them off as closed-mined, but they're exactly the type of person this industry needs to convince to further adoption. It will be next to impossible to do so with the way things are right now. In order for Bitcoin to survive, it needs exchanges that are built to the same code that it was. The solution, therefore, is to "port" the cypherpunk essence of Bitcoin to the exchanges. Immutability. Anonymity. Privacy. No central authority of figurehead. With all that said, let's talk about DEXs. I started a thread on here a few months back when Binance announced that they were giving Americans the boot. I got a ton of answers. It shows that, among the hardcore at least, there is a desire to go in a new direction. Loopring, IDEX, and Bisq were among the more popular choices. It's a step in the right direction. However, these DEXs are still rather inaccessible - especially to outsiders. Performance wise, they're on the slower side of things. Due to these setbacks, they suffer from low volume. This is where some recent developments in multicurrency wallets with embedded DEXs from lesser-known projects will come out of obscurity and catch everyone by surprise. Among them - I'd like to mention Stakenet Wallet and KMD's Atomic DEX. Both of them, now seemingly weeks away from launch, will allow for atomic swaps between a wide variety of coins directly from a private wallet. Stakenet goes a step further by offering atomic swaps running atop Lightning Network. Why does this matter? These two platforms will be to exchanges what the inception of Bitcoin was to currency. Finally, after almost 9 years, Bitcoin not only has an exchange that truly honors its essence, but it's starting to see healthy competition between them. To elaborate further on why this is very important.. No KYC. No accounts. No sending Bitcoin to an exchange and waiting around for it to show up. No downloading multiple wallets. No exchange figureheads. No withdrawal freezes. In Stakenet's case, the decentralized MN network that runs it's DEX will also act as a massive LN payment processor (routing, watchtowers) that provides a ton of liquidity for it while allowing Bitcoin to scale. "Lightning swaps" will provide every LN-based coin the ability to be instantly swapped to purchase anything in BTC. Stakenet will also feature a DEX aggregator that will pool together the orderbooks of numerous DEXs into one easily-accessible spot, boosting traffic to the many DEXs that are harder to reach and furthering their adoption along. Simply download a wallet like you would any other app and you're ready to get started. It's so much easier and more convenient. I don't see how or why CEXs and all their ilk (figurehead drama, geoblocking, exchange hacks, wash trading, currency manipulation, exit scams, etc) could remain relevant in the environment to come. Regulation will not save us. Decentralization will. As long as one person learned something from this, it was all worth it. I welcome the opinions of everyone in this space.
Anyone else on board with the theory that btc has been pulling in traditional investors above $10,000. These types have been selling the top of the equities markets only to get into btc thinking it would rise. But know since this is a war between the elites and the cypherpunks/liberterians, the bitcoin overlords have dumped thier supply for the short term crashing the price to wipe out the traditional investor btc $ value causing them to lose a significant part of their wealth? Or is just people are fearful because stocks are starting to crash, so they are selling btc as well.
Consensus 2018 Report (Continuous Updates Through May 17th)
Happy Wednesday! We are live! Consensus Short Statistics
8,500+ attendees representing 100 countries and 2000 companies.
50% of attendees came from outside the U.S.
5 stages, with more rooms for tech demos and conference tables.
State of Blockchain Don Tapscott -"We are entering a new era of trust" -Generally remarked on the benefits of blockchain. Identified the 7 types of crypto assets (Currencies, Collectibles, Stablecoins, Natural Asset Tokens [Representing minerals, water], Utility Tokens, and Security Tokens.) FedEx As I remarked in my comment earlier, FedEx is incredibly bullish on blockchain technology generally, but specifically in it's applications for cross-border shipping and asset-tracking. As I learned, the definition of what constitutes a "coffee cup" differs from place to place. Using blockchain, Smith says, FedEx can protect against unforeseen obstacles at customs. "Information about the package is as important as the package itself," he claims, further adding that the risk of experimenting with cryptocurrency is "de minimis" when compared to its alternative. During the session, FedEx unveiled "Trons", bluetooth-enabled sensors integrated with blockchain first announced in 2016. Jim Bullard, St. Louis Fed Fantastic, informational lecture regarding the history of currency and how civilizations have reacted to various implementations. Generally, Bullard notes, humans want a uniform currency. He compared cryptos with state/provincial bank notes, citing the problems faced with exchange, regulation, and value verification. We haven't yet realized this problem with cryptocurrencies since the market cap is relatively small. Insightful statistics about and charts comparing GDP to the inflation/exchange rates of the DollaYen. Surprisingly, the volatility charts look worse than Bitcoin. Catch all of these when the videos are released later this week. Summarizing, Bullard claimed that there will be a plurality of coins sharing the ecosystem, each providing a specific use. The Federal Reserve will likely mint a fiat/cryptocurrency that represents a stable stock of U.S. dollars sometime in the mid term future. Jed McCaleb I spoke with Jed of the Stellar Foundation. This is a Bitcoin subreddit, so I'll skip this part. You can find the full transcript of his thoughts here. Charlie Lee and David Schwarz Both spoke on a panel about interoperability between Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ripple, etc. Developers better understand that most cryptocurrencies can interface as long as they use the same "hooks". Schwartz compared this ideal system akin to TCP-IP; a minimal framework making as few technological demands as necessary. An ecosystem with multiple coins utilizing different security protocols and consensus mechanisms is "good for Bitcoin". In a theoretical world where power becomes abundant, what happens to PoW? We want the ability to migrate to a new protocol without upending the entire financial system. In a world where security is compromised, redundancy is critical. Lee sees UI as the next significant hurdle. Not for speculators, but for mom-and-pop investors without much tech savvy. TxTenna -Hardware to expand and facilitate mesh networks. -Even if you own Bitcoin, transfer can be censored/inhibited through the network communicating the transaction to the blockchain. -Using mesh networks, we bypass many of these constraints dealing directly with sovereign ISP's. -This is fantastic for Bitcoin users in 3rd world countries/those with oppressive regimes. I will leave this to your imagination. RSK
-Smart contract platform on top of the Bitcoin protocol. -Ecosystem challenges (Tx costs, security, scalability) -Tx cost is $0.035 - +10% hashing power -Up to 100 tps. -Next -Payment channels (Lumino) -Predicability (Fiat-based fees) -Decentralization (BTC and RSK full-node rewards) -Interoperability (inter-blockchain integration)
I'm sorry if you find this post lacking/off topic. Attempted to refine down to only what might be relevant to a Bitcoin trader. Even if Bitcoin isn't specifically mentioned, many of these innovations/philosophies will apply to the crypto space generally and, thus, to Bitcoin. It's already the end of Day 2 and I'm finishing the write-up for D1. I'll compile D2 and D3 for brevity's sake. Most of this news is now relatively (a day) old. Thanks for your attention and help supporting the crypto revolution. P.S. "Where is my Consensus boost!? I thought BTC should be $10k by now!" Historically, the Consensus Boost happens several weeks after the event, likely as news disseminates. OH FUCK I FORGOT Joseph Lubin bets BlockChain Capital's Jimmy Song, "any amount of Bitcoin" that blockchain will have widespread enterprise adoption within 5 years Day 2 Will try an update. Sitting through, eToro will be opening business in the United States, launching a wallet shortly after. Users can view successful traders' profiles and subscribe to their trades, copying them second-by-second. Circle announces a USD stablecoin and crypto wallet. HTC announces a crypto phone. Deloitte releases preview of cryptocurrency report, shows majority of companies pursuing blockchain. -"But this is just blockchain". Yes, and a rising tide lifts all ships. The Magical Crypto Friends Live From Consensus. Warning, shitty audio. -Founders of several currencies (Litecoin, Monero) discuss Buffett, Bitcoin, and other BS. 56 minute duration. For the hardcore. Day 3 Alright! Ledger -Announcing a consortium for investors/institutions who manage multiple accounts. Today, Ledger Nano S is really only useful to the individual owner. -Called, "Komino"? (Japanese Script). -Isn't this compromising the dream of Satoshi? Speaker thinks no. The dream is that everyone can use Bitcoin as they see fit. Large companies can have positions in Bitcoin without changing the life of crypto maximalists who can still use cryptocurrencies. -Bankers have the right to "Go full Moon and lambos". Polymath -The next big wave in crypto are Security Tokens. -Real estate, equity in companies. -Amongst crypto VC founders, Security Tokens will comprise 50-90% of the crypto market in the coming years. Currently, the share is approximately 1%. -You can create a security token right now. Log on here and try the demo. -First blockchain telegram to reach 50,000 users. -Integrating with tZero. All new securities should have liquidity out of the box. -ST-20. A security token standard designed to ameliorate many of the issues with fragmented ICO's. -Launching a ST Venture Fund, "Polymath Capital". -New CoinMarketCap competitor. "Tokens.com". Perhaps they'll finally force some innovation on the CMC side. -Polymath 2.0 TestNet now live. BlockStack -Internet 3.0 is here. Mesh networks, decentralized data, crypto assets. We are not storing data with companies anymore, we are personally responsible. One day, we will have a universal ID that removes the need for a rolodex of passwords, usernames, and security questions. -BlockStack members advise on Silicon Valley. Fun fact. -Infrastructure and speculative investment grew from less than $100B in January, to $100B in May, and, finally, over $600B by November. -Sounds like a dApp talk. They're making iTunes for dApps. I'll come back when he says, "Bitcoin". Jack Dorsey and Elizabeth Stark -Jack first heard of Bitcoin in St. Louis via a group of Cypherpunks. -Appreciated the complexity of code, but didn't realize the potential just yet. -Met some engineers who wanted to build a Bitcoin solution for Square. Buyers/sellers could accept Bitcoin without knowing they were using Bitcoin. -Community "felt like Usenet" as it developed between 2014 and 2017. "Felt electric". -Claimed Square's strengths are speed and simplicity. Credit cards are complex and often emotional. Talking about the Cash app, the goal is to revisit the coffee purchase of old and make it feasible using Bitcoin. -"We have evidence to show people are using this as their primary spending account, their primary bank account, and, in some cases, their only bank account." -"We have people that have been blocked from entering the financial industry." Even merchants had problems accepting payments. "Reaching the underserved, reaching the unbanked", he says, feels good. -On Square adopting Bitcoin. "It was certainly contentious within our company." "I guess we always take the mindset that we can't wait for things to happen to us...If we want responsible uses...then we have to make that happen, we have to do the work to educate regulators, educate the SEC, show that we can provide more access to more people...give people a chance to participate in the economy...still a lot of disagreements and fights, but that's where the magic happens. We really push through, and this tested us. There was certainly a spotlight on us because of that fact, but there are a lot of unknowns. We ran towards them." -On the future, the potential of Bitcoin. "The internet deserves a native currency. It will have a native currency. I don't know if it will be Bitcoin or not, but I hope it will be. I appreciate the technology so much; the principles behind it. Using the guide that the Internet will have a global currency...it's going to happen. As a company, as individuals, we need to learn how to make that happen. The biggest thing I worry about as a company is there is so much openness within the community, I hope nothing corporate will come in and threaten it." Protecting the open-source nature of the work. "This is a discussion I have a lot with Mike and the team. No one company or corporation should own this. This is the main question of everyone I meet in the community. We have a completely open mindset to ensure this remains a completely open platform. Let's not wait for it to happen. Let's do our part to encourage it to be used in healthy ways and ensure that everyone has access to it. If we ever go astray call us out. We can't do any of this without the technology being strong and available to everyone." -"Obviously we are a centralized organization that benefits from decentralization. It's a theme of conversation within our organization and we're looking to decentralize our workforce. Cash is an interesting application in our company." Going to Australia next week to check in with the local team there. They are agnostic on what locale partners decide to nest in. -Large corporate HQ's like Twitter and Square, "are a thing of the past". People will be able to work from wherever they please. -"Nobody is going to a bank for a $6,000 loan. They're going to friends and family." They can all be served with this technology. -Hesitates to make articulated 5-10 year predictions, prefers patience and iterating as each year develops. "We want to go back to the original idea of being able to purchase a coffee with it. That's why we're working with you. Whatever it takes to get there, we're going to try and make it happen." Encouraging more access to the financial space is the primary objective of the Square organization. -"Over the past two years since we've really pushed our way into this, I've felt that electricity" -Elizabeth Stark feels like she's living through the mid-90's again, "In a positive way". -Stark is an optimist. "Really seeing the value behind the means of transacting without a middle party." It wasn't until Satoshi's whitepaper did we have the means to build a solution to this problem. -"Our goal with Lightning is to enable an application layer like the Internet". -Stark -On potential, compelling apps built on Bitcoin. "As I said, there's just so much to trust, to identity, to decentralizing almost everything we use today in a centralized way. We get the power of the crowd, the ability to see so many amazing perspectives and opinions to make our answers much better. I don't think about that as much as I think about what we need to focus on." -On what they need to focus on. "There's a desire for more. There's definitely an incentive to hold the technology and encourage a mindset of saving rather than spending. But making it easier to spend, easier to transact, easier to do the everyday is what we need to focus on. We aren't necessarily going to be the company that comes up with the right frameworks or technologies, but I'm confident we'll be part of facilitating the process." -The ultimate relationship with a regulator is that of education, Dorsey claims. -On becomng a global company. "If we were ever able to use it as a payment mechanism today, we could release it all over the world opposed to the 5 markets we're in today. With each market, we have to find a banking partner, work through the regulatory." Only way to accept credit cards in Japan involved a 15-minute interview with an official. There is a large amount of legacy legislation that hampers adoption. -On the next steps of democratizing finance. "Hardest part is continuing this conversation...certainly the regulatory bodies around the world, the banks..." Slowly but surely, Square is converting Goldman Sach's-types, showing them the reasons behind the movement. Having, "healthy discussions at the board level." -On advice getting started in the industry. "Follow the conversation on Twitter, first and foremost. (laughter) And not just follow." When he first followed the industry, he felt like he had nothing to contribute. Join the conversation, express a point of view. "So many people fear expressing an opinion...instead of treating it like a conversation". "While you follow these conversations--jump in. People are going to think you're weird, they'll disagree with you, but you'll sharpen your opinions...find where they resonate." Pursue success from there. BCash I visited the BCash table and asked the representative to respond to claims that the company was causing label confusion amongst BTC and BCH. She locked up, asked if I was press, and, "was not at liberty to discuss the topic". Scam. Scam. Scam. Did I say scam? That's it for Bitcoin! Thanks for playing Consensus 2018! I have tons of photos to upload, which I'll share in the Daily General Discussion as they come online.
What changed in cryptoworld and what is the future of the economy?
Exactly 10 years ago, Satoshi Nakamoto published the white paper of the first cryptocurrency ever.
The personality of Satoshi Nakamoto is still unknown. But here is an interesting fact: the hash of the Bitcoin genesis block contains the title of the article "Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks" from the British edition of The Times.
"The main disadvantage of traditional money is that they need trust. We need to believe the central banks, although they have repeatedly betrayed this trust and devalued fiat money. We have to trust banks in keeping our money and electronic transfer, however they constantly borrowed them, creating credit bubbles and leaving almost nothing in reserves," Nakamoto wrote.
Why is the crisis to happen? Remember Nouriel Roubini, who predicted the crisis of 2008? He also said that in 2020 a global recession would begin. In his opinion, this crisis will be much tougher and longer. He says that this will be affected by the tightening of monetary policy in the United States, the Trump administration’s trade wars, the unresolved EU debt situation, and the "bubbling" US stock market. There is no reason to neglect the fame and influence of this economist - many people listen to him precisely as to a person who predicted a crisis. For many decades, large banks have been pursuing a policy of consolidation, constantly absorbing smaller institutions or carrying out mergers. Top management of such giants is sure: when there are serious problems, the government will buy out their debts, since they are too large to break down. That is what happened in 2008. How will Bitcoin help? However, sooner or later, the economy will indeed face a crisis, and it is foolish to deny that. By the way, over the past ten years, it was Bitcoin that helped people in countries with a crisis to insure savings. For example, in Venezuela and Argentina. In the short documentary "Bitcoins in Argentina," published in 2013, the Bitcoin trader told about the total nationalization of the business, thirty percent inflation and severe currency restrictions. In Venezuela, amidst the hyperinflation, the trading volume on LocalBitcoins speaks for itself. Similar phenomena were observed in Turkey and Iran. It is hard to say what exact role will Bitcoin have in the coming crisis. But it has already proved its effectiveness in times when banks and governments could not be trusted. Thus, over ten years, in spite of the prohibitions and ardent criticism, Bitcoin worked its way from anarchist origins and illegal digital markets to hearings in the US Senate, unicorn companies and the most powerful lobby. It may be assumed that the probable financial crisis will cause severe damage to the cryptocurrency business, which also uses bank accounts and operates with fiat funds. In one of the interviews, the leading Bitcoin Core developer Jonas Schnelli emphasized:
"UX in Bitcoin is far from ideal; it is extremely difficult to understand for people outside the geek community. And I am glad about it. We have time to solve technological problems, after which we will focus on user interaction. Let's make Bitcoin as simple as Whatsapp. If all the people come to Bitcoin right now, it won't stand it."
Bitcoin and blockchain technology are rapidly changing the world. Ten years ago, Satoshi Nakamoto could not even assume that his invention would be discussed at the G20 and in the White House, because before that, the cypherpunks had been in the shadow for decades. What will happen in ten more years? It seems to us that it is worthwhile to monitor the dizzy rise of cryptocurrency. It is the only option that we have now.
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📷 JOIN NOW just click below the links or any link to sign up and start earning https://office.fxtradingcorp.com/signup/1029604hjgb8c086p ( RIGHT WING CLUB) OR https://office.fxtradingcorp.com/signup/1029604hjgb8c086p ( LEFT WING CLUB) WHAT IS BITCOIN MEANING ………… 📷 Bitcoin is a decentralized digital currency that enables instant payments to anyone, anywhere in the world. Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to operate with no central authority: transaction management and money issuance are carried out collectively by the network. The original Bitcoin software by Satoshi Nakamoto was released under the MIT license. Most client software, derived or "from scratch", also use open source licensing. Bitcoin is the first successful implementation of a distributed crypto-currency, described in part in 1998 by Wei Dai on the cypherpunks mailing list. Building upon the notion that money is any object, or any sort of record, accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a given country or socio-economic context, Bitcoin is designed around the idea of using cryptography to control the creation and transfer of money, rather than relying on central authorities. Bitcoins have all the desirable properties of a money-like good. They are portable, durable, divisible, recognizable, fungible, scarce and difficult to counterfeit. Why? Bitcoin is P2P electronic cash that is valuable over legacy systems because of the monetary autonomy it brings to its users. Bitcoin seeks to address the root problem with conventional currency: all the trust that's required to make it work -- Not that justified trust is a bad thing, but trust makes systems brittle, opaque, and costly to operate. Trust failures result in systemic collapses, trust curation creates inequality and monopoly lock-in, and naturally arising trust choke-points can be abused to deny access to due process. Through the use of cryptographic proof, decentralized networks and open source software Bitcoin minimizes and replaces these trust costs. Bitcoin Transactions are: Permissionless and borderless. The software can be installed by anybody worldwide. Do not require any ID to use. Making it suitable for the unbanked, the privacy-conscious, computers or people in areas with underdeveloped financial infrastructure. Are censorship-resistant. Nobody is able to block or freeze a transaction of any amount. Irreversible once settled, like cash. (but consumer protection is still possible.) Fast. Transactions are broadcasted in seconds and can become irreversible within an hour. Online and available 24 hours a day, 365 days per year. Bitcoin can also be a store of value, some have said it is a "swiss bank account in your pocket". Stored Bitcoins: Cannot be printed or debased. Only 21 million bitcoins will ever exist. Have no storage costs. They take up no physical space regardless of amount. Are easy to protect and hide. Can be stored encrypted on a hard disk or paper backup. Are in your direct possession with no counterparty risk. If you keep the private key of a bitcoin secret and the transaction has enough confirmations, then nobody can take them from you no matter for what reason, no matter how good the excuse, no matter what. If you still can’t figure out what the heck a bitcoin is, this simple explanation will help you! … 📷 We’re sitting on a park bench. It’s a great day. I have one apple with me, I give it to you. You now have one apple and I have zero. That was simple, right? Let’s look closely at what happened: My apple was physically put into your hand. You know it happened. I was there, you were there – you touched it. We didn’t need a third person there to help us make the transfer. We didn’t need to pull in Uncle Tommy (who’s a famous judge) to sit with us on the bench and confirm that the apple went from me to you. The apple’s yours! I can’t give you another apple because I don’t have any left. I can’t control it anymore. The apple left my possession completely. You have full control over that apple now. You can give it to your friend if you want, and then that friend can give it to his friend, and so on. So that’s what an in-person exchange looks like. I guess it’s really the same, whether I’m giving you a banana, a book, a quarter, or a dollar bill …But I’m getting ahead of myself. 📷 What if we gave this ledger to everybody? Instead of the ledger living on a Blizzard computer, it’ll live in everybody’s computers. All the transactions that have ever happened, from all time, in digital apples, will be recorded in it.You can’t cheat it. I can’t send you digital apples I don’t have, because then it wouldn’t sync up with everybody else in the system. It’d be a tough system to beat. Especially if it got really big. Plus, it’s not controlled by one person, so I know there’s no one that can just decide to give himself more digital apples. The rules of the system were already defined at the beginning. And the code and rules areopen source– kinda like the software used in your mom’s Android phone. Or kinda like Wikipedia. It’s there for smart people to maintain, secure, improve, and check. You could participate in this network too – updating the ledger and making sure it all checks out. For the trouble, you could get like25 digital applesas a reward. In fact, that’s the only way to create more digital apples in the system. I simplified quite a bit … But that system I explained exists. It’s called the Bitcoin protocol. And those digital apples are the bitcoins within the system. Fancy! So, did you see what happened? What does the public ledger enable? 1) It’s open source, remember? The total number of apples was defined in the public ledger at the beginning. I know the exact amount that exists. Within the system, I know they are limited (scarce). 2) When I make an exchange I now know that digital apple certifiably left my possession and is now completely yours. I used to not be able to say that about digital things. It will be updated and verified by the public ledger. 3) Because it’s a public ledger, I didn’t need Uncle Tommy (third-party) to make sure I didn’t cheat, or make extra copies for myself, or send apples twice, or thrice… Within the system, the exchange of a digital apple is now just like the exchange of a physical one. It’s now as good as seeing a physical apple leave my hand and drop into your pocket. Just like on the park bench, the exchange involved two people only. You and me , we didn’t need Uncle Tommy there to make it valid. In other words, it behaves like a physical object. But you know what’s cool? It’s still digital. We can now deal with 1,000 apples, or 1 million apples, or even .0000001 apples. I can send it with a click of a button, and I can still drop it in your digital pocket if I was in Nicaragua and you were all the way in New York. I can even make other digital things ride on top of these digital apples! It’s digital after all. Maybe I can attach some text on it – a digital note. Or maybe I can attach more important things; like say a contract, or a stock certificate, or an ID card … So this is great! How should we treat or value these “digital apples”? They’re quite useful aren’t they? Well, a lot of people are arguing over it now. There’s debate between this and that economic school, between politicians, between programmers. Don’t listen to all of them though. Some people are smart; some are misinformed. Some say the system is worth a lot; some say it’s actually worth zero. Some guy actually put a hard number on it:$1,300 per apple. Some say it’s digital gold; some say it’s a currency. Others say they’re just like tulips. Some people say it’ll change the world; some say it’s just a fad. I have my own opinion about it, but that’s a story for another time. Hey, you now know more about Bitcoin than most. FX TRADING OFFICE ADDRESS Company Registered in South Korea (99, Centum dong-ro, Haeundae-gu, Busan, South Korea) WHY FX TRADING CREATED? \They want to open an exchange in all around the World after 3 years with* 5 Million members.\* 14:42 ABOUT THE COMPANY FXTRADING CORPORATION is a global company with many investors and entrepreneurs in the World. Already developed by a team of professionals currently in the field of FX and CRYPTOTRADING and they created the software. It also helps many investors make money from mining companies in various places around the world with the following coins. Bitcoin, Etherium, Bitcoin in cash, Litecoin, etc. Even if you do not have experience in this market, it is an opportunity to earn profits automatically and gain a lot of growth. HOW ITS WORKS Our groundbreaking platform uses an automated arbitrage system that yields profits for customers based on real-time movements in the cryptocurrency market. Our proprietary algorithm buys bitcoin when it is cheaper, and sells when it is more expensive. FX-TRADING customers benefit by assuming the profit, which is deposited directly into their online account. WHEN IT WAS LAUNCHED fficial Launch on August 10th, 2018 in Busan – South Korea.Around 896.000 peoples already joined, and more than 183 countries opened. IF U WANT TO BECOME AN INVESTOR Great! for you as an investor is very simpleChose one of the Packages available:bot 100$ bot300$bot500$ bot1000$bot3000$botbot5000$bot10000$bot20000$bot30000$bot40000$bot50000$The company will pay you up to 2.5% from what you investedThey trade during the day and when comes midnight in South Korea, they pay whatever was that day’s profitsSome days are 1.45% or 2.2% or 1.1% The company can’t guarantee how much it will pay, as Trading is not guaranteedThe company pays Monday to Friday for 200 working daysThe only way to invest is using BitcoinYou can withdraw minimum of 50$Monday to Friday, and it will be paid only in Bitcoin 24h later,not counting weekends, so if you withdraw on a Friday, you will get paid on Monday. IF U WANT TO BE AN NETWORKER Great! being a networker means you can get more bonuses• Daily Payment• Binary• Residual• Career Plan1 - The daily Payment is up to 2.5% per day Monday to Friday, until you reach 400%2- Binary is 10% of what people invest but you first need to qualify for it, is very simple, just register one direct person to your left and one to your right! after these 2, the next person that you register or that comes from those who you already registered, you will get the binary bonus from them, we are always talking about the smaller side.3- Residual, this bonus is linked to the career plan, you need to qualify per stars, each star means you get 2% of each level from your network. So if you are star 3 for example, means you will receive 2% from 3 level from your network, everyday when they receive their daily payment, you get 2% of what they make.4- Career Plan, Dollars of investment to became ◊1 Dollar = 1 PointStar 1 you need 1.000 pointsStar 2 you need 4.000 pointsStar 3 you need 20.000 pointsStar 4 you need 50.000 pointsStar 5 you need 200.000 pointsStar 6 you need 500.000 pointsStar 7 you need 1.500.000 pointsStar 8 you need 3.000.000 pointsStar 9 you need 5.000.000 pointsStar 10 you need 10.000.000 pointsBlack Star you need 50.000.000 pointsAll this point needs to be on the smaller leg. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INVESTOR AND NETWORKER First let me tell you about being an InvestorFor you as an investor is very simpleChoose one of the Packages available:100$300$500%1000$3000$5000$10000$20000$30000$40000$50000$The company will pay you up to 2.5% from what you investedThey trade during the day and when comes midnight in South Korea, they pay whatever was that day’s profitsSome days are 1.45% or 2.2% or 1.1% The company can’t guarantee how much it will pay, as Trading is not guaranteedThe company pays Monday to Friday for 200 working daysThe only way to invest is using BitcoinYou can withdraw minimum of 50$Monday to Friday, and it will be paid only in Bitcoin 24h later,not counting weekends, so if you withdraw on a Friday, you will get paid on Monday. Now as a networker you can get more bonuses• Daily Payment• Binary• Residual• Career Plan1 - The daily Payment is up to 2.5% per day Monday to Friday, until you reach 400%2- Binary is 10% of what people invest but you first need to qualify for it, is very simple, just register one direct person to your left and one to your right! after these 2, the next person that you register or that comes from those who you already registered, you will get the binary bonus from them, we are always talking about the smaller side.3- Residual, this bonus is linked to the career plan, you need to qualify per stars, each star means you get 2% of each level from your network. So if you are star 3 for example, means you will receive 2% from 3 level from your network, everyday when they receive their daily payment, you get 2% of what they make.4- Career Plan, Dollars of investment to became ◊1 Dollar = 1 PointStar 1 you need 1.000 pointsStar 2 you need 4.000 pointsStar 3 you need 20.000 pointsStar 4 you need 50.000 pointsStar 5 you need 200.000 pointsStar 6 you need 500.000 pointsStar 7 you need 1.500.000 pointsStar 8 you need 3.000.000 pointsStar 9 you need 5.000.000 pointsStar 10 you need 10.000.000 pointsBlack Star you need 50.000.000 pointsAll this point needs to be on the smaller leg. MOST IMPORTANTLY IS THAT The difference Between an investor and a networker is:Investor Will only receive the daily payment of up to 2.5%Networker Can get more bonuses such as:- Daily Payment of up to 2.5%- Indication of 6%- Binary of 10%- Residual Bonus- Career Bonus SOME INFO THAT YOU HAVE TO KNOW ABOUT GET SUPPORT FROM FXTRADING ACTIVATION: MY PLAN DOES NOT ACTIVATE AFTER WIRING FUNDS ANSWER IS … .- After a payment request is created, you have 24 hours to wire funds to a designated wallet. Based on the fluctuation of Bitcoin prices, posted amount of Bitcoin may be larger or smaller. Price updates commence every 30 minutes.- The system only validates your request to transfer when you pay the designated amount or more. If less bitcoin were submitted, the transfer request would be voided automatically… HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO ACTIVATE MY PLAN ANSWER IS .... - The time until the activation varies depending on processing speed of network or blockchain. Some exchange and wallet may take more time to transfer funds. However, the process generally does not exceed 6 hours. Therefore, if your plan does not activate after 6 hours, please contact the support centre. EARNINGS: WHICH DAYS OF A WEEK I RECEIVE MY EARNINGS ? - Daily earnings are processed and posted at midnight, Monday through Friday, Korean Standard Time. MY PLAN WAS ACTIVATED BUT NOT YET REICIEVE EARNINGS? - It takes 24 hours until your investments are processed through our system. You will be listed as an FXTRADING dividend recipient after 24 hours. I UPGRADED MY PLAN BUT RECEIVED EARNINGS FOR THE PREVIOUS PLAN? - The same rules apply for plan upgrades with the purchase of a new plan. Your upgrades will be in force after 24 hours. Until that point, you will receive the earnings on the previous plan. WITHDRAWAL: WHICH DAYS OF A WEEK I CAN WITHDRAW MY FUNDS? - You can withdraw your funds Monday through Friday. What is the minimum amount that I can withdraw? - The minimum withdrawal amount is currently $50. There is no limit on the maximum amount you can withdraw. How long does it take to process my remittance request? - Please allow 1 to 3 business days to process your withdrawal requests. I received payment confirmation o- It may take up to 24 hours after confirmation for requests to be processed in blockchain and posted on your wallet. Hash values I received by e-mail are not recognized by Blockchain. - It generally takes 24 hours for blockchain to recognize hash values. You can review the progress by the link provided in the e-mail message until then. Binary What should I do to get a binary bonus? - It generally takes 24 hours for blockchain to recognize hash values. You can review the progress by the link provided in the e-mail message until then. I made one referral member, but I did not receive a credit. - Please confirm if the new referral member is the first one on your left or right. First referral on each side only qualifies you for binary bonus program. They do not create credits and do not count as binary members.- Was your plan active when your referral members in lower tier activate their plans? Credits are provided only if your plan was active when lower tier members activate their plans.- Are your lower tier referral members’ accounts leadership accounts? Leadership accounts do not own earnings and do not get payments. Therefore, leadership members do not create binary credit. Amounts of my credit received seems not correct. - Created credits are 10% of the price of plans purchased. If a member in your network upgrades a plan, the member only creates credits on the difference between two plans, not on the entire amount of the plan the member bought. For instance, if a member upgrades to $500 plan from $300 plan, you would receive 10% of the difference between the two plans. The difference is $200 in this example so that you will get 20 credits in total. I received bonus less than created credits. - There is a rule for the binary program; no member shall receive binary bonus larger than the plan they are on. For instance, if you are using $100 plan, but have created 150 credits through the binary network, you will only receive $100 bonus, forfeiting the remaining $50.- You also need to be careful about 400% earning rule. You can never receive an amount four times more than the plan you are on. For example, if you are using $100 plan, have received $350 as earnings so far and you have 100 credits outstanding for a binary bonus, only $50 that matches your 400% ceiling will be paid to you as a binary bonus. Referral Bonus I did not receive my referral bonus while my referral member was activatated - To receive a referral bonus, your plan must be active when your referral’s plan comes activated. To ensure receipt of your bonus, please wait until your plan gets activated before providing referral codes.- Referral Bonus is subject to 400% earning rule. Bonus from referrals will be paid up until their earnings reach 400% of their plan price. Bonus ceases to be remitted when your referral member reaches the earning cap. An incorrect amount of bonus was paid The referral bonus is 6% of the plan price purchased. If your referral member upgrades their plan, it creates the bonus on the difference between the two plans, not the entire amount of the plan purchased. For example, if your referral member upgrades to $500 plan from $300 plan, you will receive a 6% bonus on the difference amount between the plans. In this case, you will receive a $12 bonus as the difference is $200.- You also need to be careful about 400% earning rule. You can never receive an amount four times more than the plan you are on. For example, if you are using $100 plan, have received $350 as earnings so far and you have 100 credits outstanding for a referral bonus, only $50 that matches your 400% ceiling will be paid to you as a referral bonus.
World History Timeline of Events Leading up to Bitcoin - In the Making
A (live/editable) timeline of historical events directly or indirectly related to the creation of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies *still workin' on this so check back later and more will be added, if you have any suggested dates/events feel free to lemme know... This timeline includes dates pertaining to:
Forms of money
Widely accepted economic systems
Widely accepted forms of government
Inventions which advanced FinTech
Inventions in computer science and related technology
Inventions which connected the world via transportation, communication and information
Development of cryptography and cyberwar
Notable Social Movements
Hyperinflation and National Debts
Ancient Bartering – first recorded in Egypt (resources, services...) – doesn’t scale Tally sticks were used, making notches in bones or wood, as a form of money of account 9000-6000 BC Livestock considered the first form of currency c3200 BC Clay tablets used in Uruk (Iraq) for accounting (believed to be the earliest form of writing) 3000 BC Grain is used as a currency, measured out in Shekels 3000 BC Banking developed in Mesopotamia 3000 BC? Punches used to stamp symbols on coins were a precursor to the printing press and modern coins ? BC Since ancient Persia and all the way up until the invention and expansion of the telegraph Homing Pigeons were used to carry messages 2000 BC Merchants in Assyria, India and Sumeria lent grain to farmers and traders as a precursor to banks 1700 BC In Babylon at the time of Hammurabi, in the 18th century BC, there are records of loans made by the priests of the temple. 1200 BC Shell money first used in China 1000-600 BC Crude metal coins first appear in China 640 BC Precious metal coins – Gold & Silver first used in ancient Lydia and coastal Greek cities featuring face to face heads of a bull and a lion – first official minted currency made from electrum, a mixture of gold and silver 600-500 BC Atbash Cipher A substitution Cipher used by ancient Hebrew scholars mapping the alphabet in reverse, for example, in English an A would be a Z, B a Y etc. 400 BC Skytale used by Sparta 474 BC Hundreds of gold coins from this era were discovered in Rome in 2018 350 BC Greek hydraulic semaphore system, an optical communication system developed by Aeneas Tacticus. c200 BC Polybius Square ??? Wealthy stored coins in temples, where priests also lent them out ??? Rome was the first to create banking institutions apart from temples 118 BC First banknote in the form of 1 foot sq pieces of white deerskin 100-1 AD Caesar Cipher 193 Aureus, a gold coin of ancient Rome, minted by Septimius Severus 324 Solidus, pure gold coin, minted under Constantine’s rule, lasted until the late 8th century 600s Paper currency first developed in Tang Dynasty China during the 7th century, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, during the Song Dynasty, 960–1279 c757–796 Silver pennies based on the Roman denarius became the staple coin of Mercia in Great Britain around the time of King Offa 806 First paper banknotes used in China but isn’t widely accepted in China until 960 1024 The first series of standard government notes were issued in 1024 with denominations like 1 guàn (貫, or 700 wén), 1 mín (緡, or 1000 wén), up to 10 guàn. In 1039 only banknotes of 5 guàn and 10 guàn were issued, and in 1068 a denomination of 1 guàn was introduced which became forty percent of all circulating Jiaozi banknotes. 1040 The first movable type printer was invented in China and made of porcelain ? Some of the earliest forms of long distance communication were drums used by Native Africans and smoke signals used by Native Americans and Chinese 1088 Movable type in Song Dynasty China 1120 By the 1120s the central government officially stepped in and produced their own state-issued paper money (using woodblock printing) 1150 The Knights Templar issued bank notes to pilgrims. Pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value of their deposit, then used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value. 1200s-1300s During the 13th century bankers from north Italy, collectively known as Lombards, gradually replace the Jews in their traditional role as money-lenders to the rich and powerful. – Florence, Venice and Genoa - The Bardi and Peruzzi Families dominated banking in 14th century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe 1200 By the time Marco Polo visited China they’d move from coins to paper money, who introduced the concept to Europe. An inscription warned, "All counterfeiters will be decapitated." Before the use of paper, the Chinese used coins that were circular, with a rectangular hole in the middle. Several coins could be strung together on a rope. Merchants in China, if they became rich enough, found that their strings of coins were too heavy to carry around easily. To solve this problem, coins were often left with a trustworthy person, and the merchant was given a slip of paper recording how much money they had with that person. Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan Dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made Into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country." 1252 Florin minted in Florence, becomes the hard currency of its day helping Florence thrive economically 1340 Double-entry bookkeeping - The clerk keeping the accounts for the Genoese firm of Massari painstakingly fills in the ledger for the year 1340. 1397 Medici Bank established 1450 Johannes Gutenberg builds the printing press – printed words no longer just for the rich 1455 Paper money disappears from China 1466 Polyalphabetic Cipher 1466 Rotating cipher disks – Vatican – greatest crypto invention in 1000 yrs – the first system to challenge frequency analysis 1466 First known mechanical cipher machine 1472 The oldest bank still in existence founded, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, headquartered in Siena, Italy 1494 Double-entry bookkeeping system codified by Luca Pacioli 1535 Wampum, a form of currency used by Native Americans, a string of beads made from clamshells, is first document. 1553 Vigenere Cipher 1557 Phillip II of Spain managed to burden his kingdom with so much debt (as the result of several pointless wars) that he caused the world's first national bankruptcy — as well as the world's second, third and fourth, in rapid succession. 1577 Newspaper in Korea 1586 The Babington Plot 1590 Cabinet Noir was established in France. Its mission was to open, read and reseal letters, and great expertise was developed in the restoration of broken seals. In the knowledge that mail was being opened, correspondents began to develop systems to encrypt and decrypt their letters. The breaking of these codes gave birth to modern systematic scientific code breaking. 1600s Promissory banknotes began in London 1600s By the early 17th century banking begins also to exist in its modern sense - as a commercial service for customers rather than kings. – Late 17th century we see cheques slowly gains acceptance The total of the money left on deposit by a bank's customers is a large sum, only a fraction of which is usually required for withdrawals. A proportion of the rest can be lent out at interest, bringing profit to the bank. When the customers later come to realize this hidden value of their unused funds, the bank's profit becomes the difference between the rates of interest paid to depositors and demanded from debtors. The transformation from moneylenders into private banks is a gradual one during the 17th and 18th centuries. In England it is achieved by various families of goldsmiths who early in the period accept money on deposit purely for safe-keeping. Then they begin to lend some of it out. Finally, by the 18th century, they make banking their business in place of their original craft as goldsmiths. 1605 Newspaper in Straussburg c1627 Great Cipher 1637 Wampum is declared as legal tender in the U.S. (where we got the slang word “clams” for money) 1656 Johan Palmstruch establishes the Stockholm Banco 1661 Paper Currency reappears in Europe, soon became common - The goldsmith-bankers of London began to give out the receipts as payable to the bearer of the document rather than the original depositor 1661 Palmstruch issues credit notes which can be exchanged, on presentation to his bank, for a stated number of silver coins 1666 Stockholms Banco, the predecessor to the Central Bank of Sweden issues the first paper money in Europe. Soon went bankrupt for printing too much money. 1667 He issues more notes than his bank can afford to redeem with silver and winds up in disgrace, facing a death penalty (commuted to imprisonment) for fraud. 1668 Bank of Sweden – today the 2nd oldest surviving bank 1694 First Central Bank established in the UK was the first bank to initiate the permanent issue of banknotes Served as model for most modern central banks. The modern banknote rests on the assumption that money is determined by a social and legal consensus. A gold coin's value is simply a reflection of the supply and demand mechanism of a society exchanging goods in a free market, as opposed to stemming from any intrinsic property of the metal. By the late 17th century, this new conceptual outlook helped to stimulate the issue of banknotes. 1700s Throughout the commercially energetic 18th century there are frequent further experiments with bank notes - deriving from a recognized need to expand the currency supply beyond the availability of precious metals. 1710 Physiocracy 1712 First commercial steam engine 1717 Master of the Royal Mint Sir Isaac Newton established a new mint ratio between silver and gold that had the effect of driving silver out of circulation (bimetalism) and putting Britain on a gold standard. 1735 Classical Economics – markets regulate themselves when free of intervention 1744 Mayer Amschel Rothschild, Founder of the Rothschild Banking Empire, is Born in Frankfurt, Germany Mayer Amschel Rothschild extended his banking empire across Europe by carefully placing his five sons in key positions. They set up banks in Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Naples, and Paris. By the mid 1800’s they dominated the banking industry, lending to governments around the world and people such as the Vanderbilts, Carnegies, and Cecil Rhodes. 1745 There was a gradual move toward the issuance of fixed denomination notes in England standardized printed notes ranging from £20 to £1,000 were being printed. 1748 First recorded use of the word buck for a dollar, stemming from the Colonial period in America when buck skins were commonly traded 1757 Colonial Scrip Issued in US 1760s Mayer Amschel Rothschild establishes his banking business 1769 First steam powered car 1775-1938 US Diplomatic Codes & Ciphers by Ralph E Weber used – problems were security and distribution 1776 American Independence 1776 Adam Smith’s Invisible Hand theory helped bankers and money-lenders limit government interference in the banking sector 1781 The Bank of North America was a private bank first adopted created the US Nation's first de facto central bank. When shares in the bank were sold to the public, the Bank of North America became the country's first initial public offering. It lasted less than ten years. 1783 First steamboat 1791 Congress Creates the First US Bank – A Private Company, Partly Owned by Foreigners – to Handle the Financial Needs of the New Central Government. First Bank of the United States, a National bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, it was not renewed in 1811. Previously, the 13 states had their own banks, currencies and financial institutions, which had an average lifespan of about 5 years. 1792 First optical telegraph invented where towers with telescopes were dispersed across France 12-25 km apart, relaying signals according to positions of arms extended from the top of the towers. 1795 Thomas Jefferson invents the Jefferson Disk Cipher or Wheel Cipher 1797 to 1821 Restriction Period by England of trading banknotes for silver during Napoleonic Wars 1797 Currency Crisis Although the Bank was originally a private institution, by the end of the 18th century it was increasingly being regarded as a public authority with civic responsibility toward the upkeep of a healthy financial system. 1799 First paper machine 1800 Banque de France – France’s central bank opens to try to improve financing of the war 1800 Invention of the battery 1801 Rotchschild Dynasty begins in Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire – established international banking family through his 5 sons who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples 1804 Steam locomotive 1807 Internal combustion engine and automobile 1807 Robert Fulton expands water transportation and trade with the workable steamboat. 1809 Telegraphy 1811 First powered printing press, also first to use a cylinder 1816 The Privately Owned Second Bank of the US was Chartered – It Served as the Main Depository for Government Revenue, Making it a Highly Profitable Bank – charter not renewed in 1836 1816 The first working telegraph was built using static electricity 1816 Gold becomes the official standard of value in England 1820 Industrial Revolution c1820 Neoclassical Economics 1821 British gov introduces the gold standard - With governments issuing the bank notes, the inherent danger is no longer bankruptcy but inflation. 1822 Charles Babbage, considered the "father of the computer", begins building the first programmable mechanical computer. 1832 Andrew Jackson Campaigns Against the 2nd Bank of the US and Vetoes Bank Charter Renewal Andrew Jackson was skeptical of the central banking system and believed it gave too few men too much power and caused inflation. He was also a proponent of gold and silver and an outspoken opponent of the 2nd National Bank. The Charter expired in 1836. 1833 President Jackson Issues Executive Order to Stop Depositing Government Funds Into Bank of US By September 1833, government funds were being deposited into state chartered banks. 1833-1837 Manufactured “boom” created by central bankers – money supply Increases 84%, Spurred by the 2nd Bank of the US The total money supply rose from $150 million to $267 million 1835 Jackson Escapes Assassination. Assassin misfired twice. 1837-1862 The “Free Banking Era” there was no formal central bank in the US, and banks issued their own notes again 1838 First Telegram sent using Morse Code across 3 km, in 1844 he sent a message across 71 km from Washington DC to Baltimore. 1843 Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm for computing 1844 Modern central bank of England established - meaning only the central bank of England could issue banknotes – prior to that commercial banks could issue their own and were the primary form of currency throughout England the Bank of England was restricted to issue new banknotes only if they were 100% backed by gold or up to £14 million in government debt. 1848 Communist Manifesto 1850 The first undersea telegraphic communications cable connected France in England after latex produced from the sap of the Palaquium gutta tree in 1845 was proposed as insulation for the underwater cables. 1852 Many countries in Europe build telegram networks, however post remained the primary means of communication to distant countries. 1855 In England fully printed notes that did not require the name of the payee and the cashier's signature first appeared 1855 The printing telegraph made it possible for a machine with 26 alphabetic keys to print the messages automatically and was soon adopted worldwide. 1856 Belgian engineer Charles Bourseul proposed telephony 1856 The Atlantic Telegraph company was formed in London to stretch a commercial telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean, completed in 1866. 1860 The Pony Express was founded, able to deliver mail of wealthy individuals or government officials from coast to coast in 10 days. 1861 The East coast was connected to the West when Western Union completed the transcontinental telegraph line, putting an end to unprofitable The Pony Express. 1862-1863 First US banknotes - Lincoln Over Rules Debt-Based Money and Issues Greenbacks to Fund Civil War Bankers would only lend the government money under certain conditions and at high interest rates, so Lincoln issued his own currency – “greenbacks” – through the US Treasury, and made them legal tender. His soldiers went on to win the war, followed by great economic expansion. 1863 to 1932 “National Banking Era” Commercial banks in the United States had legally issued banknotes before there was a national currency; however, these became subject to government authorization from 1863 to 1932 1864 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen founded the first rural credit union in Heddesdorf (now part of Neuwied) in Germany. By the time of Raiffeisen's death in 1888, credit unions had spread to Italy, France, the Netherlands, England, Austria, and other nations 1870 Long-distance telegraph lines connected Britain and India. c1871 Marginalism - The doctrines of marginalism and the Marginal Revolution are often interpreted as a response to the rise of the worker's movement, Marxian economics and the earlier (Ricardian) socialist theories of the exploitation of labour. 1871 Carl Menger’s Principles of Economics – Austrian School 1872 Marx’s Das Capital 1872 Australia becomes the first nation to be connected to the rest of the world via submarine telegraph cables. 1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone, first called the electric speech machine – revolutionized communication 1877 Thomas Edison – Phonograph 1878 Western Union, the leading telegraph provider of the U.S., begins to lose out to the telephone technology of the National Bell Telephone Company. 1881 President James Garfield, Staunch Proponent of “Honest Money” Backed by Gold and Silver, was Assassinated Garfield opposed fiat currency (money that was not backed by any physical object). He had the second shortest Presidency in history. 1882 First description of the one-time pad 1886 First gas powered car 1888 Ballpoint pen 1892 Cinematograph 1895 System of wireless communication using radio waves 1896 First successful intercontinental telegram 1898 Polyethylene 1899 Nickel-cadmium battery 1907 Banking Panic of 1907 The New York Stock Exchange dropped dramatically as everyone tried to get their money out of the banks at the same time across the nation. This banking panic spurred debate for banking reform. JP Morgan and others gathered to create an image of concern and stability in the face of the panic, which eventually led to the formation of the Federal Reserve. The founders of the Federal Reserve pretended like the bankers were opposed to the idea of its formation in order to mislead the public into believing that the Federal Reserve would help to regulate bankers when in fact it really gave even more power to private bankers, but in a less transparent way. 1908 St Mary’s Bank – first credit union in US 1908 JP Morgan Associate and Rockefeller Relative Nelson Aldrich Heads New National Monetary Commission Senate Republican leader, Nelson Aldrich, heads the new National Monetary Commission that was created to study the cause of the banking panic. Aldrich had close ties with J.P. Morgan and his daughter married John D. Rockefeller. 1910 Bankers Meet Secretly on Jekyll Island to Draft Federal Reserve Banking Legislation Over the course of a week, some of the nation’s most powerful bankers met secretly off the coast of Georgia, drafting a proposal for a private Central Banking system. 1913 Federal Reserve Act Passed Two days before Christmas, while many members of Congress were away on vacation, the Federal Reserve Act was passed, creating the Central banking system we have today, originally with gold backed Federal Reserve Notes. It was based on the Aldrich plan drafted on Jekyll Island and gave private bankers supreme authority over the economy. They are now able to create money out of nothing (and loan it out at interest), make decisions without government approval, and control the amount of money in circulation. 1913 Income tax established -16th Amendment Ratified Taxes ensured that citizens would cover the payment of debt due to the Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, which was also created in 1913.The 16th Amendment stated: “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.” 1914 November, Federal Reserve Banks Open JP Morgan and Co. Profits from Financing both sides of War and Purchasing Weapons J.P. Morgan and Co. made a deal with the Bank of England to give them a monopoly on underwriting war bonds for the UK and France. They also invested in the suppliers of war equipment to Britain and France. 1914 WWI 1917 Teletype cipher 1917 The one-time pad 1917 Zimmerman Telegram intercepted and decoded by Room 40, the cryptanalysis department of the British Military during WWI. 1918 GB returns to gold standard post-war but it didn’t work out 1919 First rotor machine, an electro-mechanical stream ciphering and decrypting machine. 1919 Founding of The Cipher Bureau, Poland’s intelligence and cryptography agency. 1919-1929 The Black Chamber, a forerunner of the NSA, was the first U.S. cryptanalytic organization. Worked with the telegraph company Western Union to illegally acquire foreign communications of foreign embassies and representatives. It was shut down in 1929 as funding was removed after it was deemed unethical to intercept private domestic radio signals. 1920s Department stores, hotel chains and service staions begin offering customers charge cards 1921-1929 The “Roaring 20’s” – The Federal Reserve Floods the Economy with Cash and Credit From 1921 to 1929 the Federal Reserve increased the money supply by $28 billion, almost a 62% increase over an eight-year period. This artificially created another “boom”. 1927 Quartz clock 1928 First experimental Television broadcast in the US. 1929 Federal Reserve Contracts the Money Supply In 1929, the Federal Reserve began to pull money out of circulation as loans were paid back. They created a “bust” which was inevitable after issuing so much credit in the years before. The Federal Reserve’s actions triggered the banking crisis, which led to the Great Depression. 1929 October 24, “Black Thursday”, Stock Market Crash The most devastating stock market crash in history. Billions of dollars in value were consolidated into the private banker’s hands at the expense of everyone else. 1930s The Great Depression marked the end of the gold standard 1931 German Enigma machines attained and reconstructed. 1932 Turbo jet engine patented 1933 SEC founded - passed the Glass–Steagall Act, which separated investment banking and commercial banking. This was to avoid more risky investment banking activities from ever again causing commercial bank failures. 1933 FM Radio 1933 Germany begins Telex, a network of teleprinters sending and receiving text based messages. Post WWII Telex networks began to spread around the world. 1936 Austrian engineer Paul Eisler invented Printed circuit board 1936 Beginning of the Keynesian Revolution 1937 Typex, British encryption machines which were upgraded versions of Enigma machines. 1906 Teletypewriters 1927 Founding of highly secret and unofficial Signal Intelligence Service, SIS, the U.S. Army’s codebreaking division. 1937 Made illegal for Americans to own gold 1938 Z1 built by Konrad Zuse is the first freely programmable computer in the world. 1939 WWII – decline of the gold standard which greatly restricted policy making 1939-45 Codetalkers - The Navajo code is the only spoken military code never to have been deciphered - "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima."—Howard Connor 1940 Modems 1942 Deciphering Japanese coded messages leads to a turning point victory for the U.S. in WWII. 1943 At Bletchley Park, Alan Turing and team build a specialized cipher-breaking machine called Heath Robinson. 1943 Colossus computer built in London to crack the German Lorenz cipher. 1944 Bretton Woods – convenient after the US had most of the gold 1945 Manhattan Project – Atom Bomb 1945 Transatlantic telephone cable 1945 Claude E. Shannon published "A mathematical theory of cryptography", commonly accepted as the starting point for development of modern cryptography. C1946 Crypto Wars begin and last to this day 1946 Charg-it card created by John C Biggins 1948 Atomic clock 1948 Claude Shannon writes a paper that establishes the mathematical basis of information theory 1949 Info theorist Claude Shannon asks “What does an ideal cipher look like?” – one time pad – what if the keys are not truly random 1950 First credit card released by the Diners Club, able to be used in 20 restaurants in NYC 1951 NSA, National Security Agency founded and creates the KL-7, an off-line rotor encryption machine 1952 First thermonuclear weapon 1953 First videotape recorder 1953 Term “Hash” first used meaning to “chop” or “make a mess” out of something 1954 Atomic Energy Act (no mention of crypto) 1957 The NSA begins producing ROMOLUS encryption machines, soon to be used by NATO 1957 First PC – IBM 1957 First Satellite – Sputnik 1 1958 Western Union begins building a nationwide Telex network in the U.S. 1960s Machine readable codes were added to the bottom of cheques in MICR format, which speeded up the clearing and sorting process 1960s Financial organizations were beginning to require strong commercial encryption on the rapidly growing field of wired money transfer. 1961 Electronic clock 1963 June 4, Kennedy Issued an Executive Order (11110) that Authorized the US Treasury to Issue Silver Certificates, Threatening the Federal Reserve’s Monopoly on Money This government issued currency would bypass the governments need to borrow from bankers at interest. 1963 Electronic calculator 1963 Nov. 22, Kennedy Assassinated 1963 Johnson Reverses Kennedy’s Banking Rule and Restores Power to the Federal Reserve 1964 8-Track 1964 LAN, Local Area Networks adapters 1965 Moore’s Law by CEO of Intel Gordon Moore observes that the number of components per integrated circuit doubles every year, and projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade. In 1975 he revised it to every two years. 1967 First ATM installed at Barclay’s Bank in London 1968 Cassette Player introduced 1969 First connections of ARPANET, predecessor of the internet, are made. started – SF, SB, UCLA, Utah (now Darpa) – made to stay ahead of the Soviets – there were other networks being built around the world but it was very hard to connect them – CERN in Europe 1970s Stagflation – unemployment + inflation, which Keynesian theory could not explain 1970s Business/commercial applications for Crypto emerge – prior to this time it was militarily used – ATMs 1st got people thinking about commercial applications of cryptography – data being sent over telephone lines 1970s The public developments of the 1970s broke the near monopoly on high quality cryptography held by government organizations. Use of checks increased in 70s – bringing about ACH One way functions... A few companies began selling access to private networks – but weren’t allowed to connect to the internet – business and universities using Arpanet had no commercial traffic – internet was used for research, not for commerce or advertising 1970 Railroads threatened by the growing popularity of air travel. Penn Central Railroad declares bankruptcy resulting in a $3.2 billion bailout 1970 Conjugate coding used in an attempt to design “money physically impossible to counterfeit” 1971 The US officially removes the gold standard 1971 Email invented 1971 Email 1971 First microcomputer on a chip 1971 Lockheed Bailout - $1.4 billion – Lockheed was a major government defense contractor 1972 First programmable word processor 1972 First video game console 1973 SWIFT established 1973 Ethernet invented, standardized in ‘83 1973 Mobile phone 1973 First commercial GUI – Xerox Alto 1973 First touchscreen 1973 Emails made up more than ¾ of ARPANET’s packets – people had to keep a map of the network by their desk – so DNS was created 1974 A protocol for packet network intercommunication – TCP/IP – Cerf and Kahn 1974 Franklin National Bank Bailout - $1.5 billion (valued at that time) - At the time, it was the largest bank failure in US history 1975 New York City Bailout - $9.4 billion – NYC was overextended 1975 W DES - meant that commercial uses of high quality encryption would become common, and serious problems of export control began to arise. 1975 DES, Data Encryption Standard developed at IBM, seeking to develop secure electronic communications for banks and large financial organizations. DES was the first publicly accessible cipher to be 'blessed' by a national agency such as the NSA. Its release stimulated an explosion of public and academic interest in cryptography. 1975 Digital camera 1975 Altair 8800 sparks the microprocessor revolution 1976 Bretton Woods ratified (lasted 30 years) – by 80’s all nations were using floating currencies 1976 New Directions in Cryptography published by Diffie & Hellman – this terrified Fort Meade – previously this technique was classified, now it’s public 1976 Apple I Computer – Steve Wozniak 1976 Asymmetric key cryptosystem published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. 1976 Hellman and Diffie publish New Directions in Cryptography, introducing a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, contributing much to solving key distribution one of the fundamental problems of cryptography. It brought about the almost immediate public development of asymmetric key algorithms. - where people can have 2 sets of keys, public and private 1977 Diffie & Hellman receive letter from NSA employee JA Meyer that they’re violating Federal Laws comparable to arms export – this raises the question, “Can the gov prevent academics from publishing on crypto? 1977 DES considered insecure 1977 First handheld electronic game 1977 RSA public key encryption invented 1978 McEliece Cryptosystem invented, first asymmetric encryption algorithm to use randomization in the encryption process 1980s Large data centers began being built to store files and give users a better faster experience – companies rented space from them - Data centers would not only store data but scour it to show people what they might want to see and in some cases, sell data 1980s Reaganomics and Thatcherism 1980 A decade of intense bank failures begins; the FDIC reports that 1,600 were either closed or received financial assistance from 1980 to 1994 1980 Chrysler Bailout – lost over $1 billion due to major hubris on the part of its executives - $1.5 billion one of the largest payouts ever made to a single corporation. 1980 Protocols for public key cryptosystems – Ralph Merkle 1980 Flash memory invented – public in ‘84 1981 “Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses and Digital Pseudonumns” – Chaum 1981 EFTPOS, Electronic funds transfer at point of sale is created 1981 IBM Personal Computer 1982 “The Ethics of Liberty” Murray Rothbard 1982 Commodore 64 1982 CD 1983 Satellite TV 1983 First built in hard drive 1983 C++ 1983 Stereolithography 1983 Blind signatures for untraceable payments Mid 1980s Use of ATMs becomes more widespread 1984 Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust bailed out due to overly aggressive lending styles and - the bank’s downfall could be directly traced to risk taking and a lack of due diligence on the part of bank officers - $9.5 billion in 2008 money 1984 Macintosh Computer - the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse 1984 CD Rom 1985 Zero-Knowledge Proofs first proposed 1985 300,000 simultaneous telephone conversations over single optical fiber 1985 Elliptic Curve Cryptography 1987 ARPANET had connected over 20k guarded computers by this time 1988 First private networks email servers connected to NSFNET 1988 The Crypto Anarchists Manifesto – Timothy C May 1988 ISDN, Integrated Services Digital Network 1989 Savings & Loan Bailout - After the widespread failure of savings and loan institutions, President George H. W. Bush signed and Congress enacted the Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act - This was a taxpayer bailout of about $200 billion 1989 First commercial emails sent 1989 Digicash - Chaum 1989 Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau built the prototype system which became the World Wide Web, WWW 1989 First ISPs – companies with no network of their own which connected people to a local network and to the internet - To connect to a network your computer placed a phone call through a modem which translated analog signals to digital signals – dial-up was used to connect computers as phone lines already had an extensive network across the U.S. – but phone lines weren’t designed for high pitched sounds that could change fast to transmit large amounts of data 1990s Cryptowars really heat up... 1990s Some countries started to change their laws to allow "truncation" 1990s Encryption export controls became a matter of public concern with the introduction of the personal computer. Phil Zimmermann's PGP cryptosystem and its distribution on the Internet in 1991 was the first major 'individual level' challenge to controls on export of cryptography. The growth of electronic commerce in the 1990s created additional pressure for reduced restrictions. Shortly afterward, Netscape's SSL technology was widely adopted as a method for protecting credit card transactions using public key cryptography. 1990 NSFNET replaced Arpanet as backbone of the internet with more than 500k users Early 90s Dial up provided through AOL and Compuserve People were leery to use credit cards on the internet 1991 How to time-stamp a digital doc - Stornetta 1991 Phil Zimmermann releases the public key encryption program Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) along with its source code, which quickly appears on the Internet. He distributed a freeware version of PGP when he felt threatened by legislation then under consideration by the US Government that would require backdoors to be included in all cryptographic products developed within the US. Expanded the market to include anyone wanting to use cryptography on a personal computer (before only military, governments, large corporations) 1991 WWW (Tim Berners Lee) – made public in ‘93 – flatten the “tree” structure of the internet using hypertext – reason for HTTP//:WWW – LATER HTTPS for more security 1992 Erwise – first Internet Browser w a graphical Interface 1992 Congress passed a law allowing for commercial traffic on NSFNET 1992 Cpherpunks, Eric Hughes, Tim C May and John Gilmore – online privacy and safety from gov – cypherpunks write code so it can be spread and not shut down (in my earlier chapter) 1993 Mosaic – popularized surfing the web ‘til Netscape Navigator in ’94 – whose code was later used in Firefox 1993 A Cypherpunks Manifesto – Eric Hughes 1994 World’s first online cyberbank, First Virtual, opened for business 1994 Bluetooth 1994 First DVD player 1994 Stanford Federal Credit Union becomes the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994 1994 Internet only used by a few 1994 Cybercash 1994 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption protocol released by Netscape. Making financial transactions possible. 1994 One of the first online purchases was made, a Pizza Hut pepperoni pizza with mushrooms and extra cheese 1994 Cyphernomicon published – social implication where gov can’t do anything about it 1994-1999 Social Networking – GeoCities (combining creators and users) – had 19M users by ’99 – 3rd most popular after AOL and Yahoo – GeoCities purchased by Yahoo for $3.6B but took a hit after dotcom bubble popped and never recovered – GC shut down in ‘99 1995-2000 Dotcom bubble – Google, Amazon, Facebook: get over 600M visitors/year 1995 DVD 1995 MP3 term coined for MP3 files, the earlier development of which stretches back into the ‘70s, where MP files themselves where developed throughout the ‘90s 1995 NSFNET shut down and handed everything over to the ISPs 1995 NSA publishes the SHA1 hash algorithm as part of its Digital Signature Standard. 1996, 2000 President Bill Clinton signing the Executive order 13026 transferring the commercial encryption from the Munition List to the Commerce Control List. This order permitted the United States Department of Commerce to implement rules that greatly simplified the export of proprietary and open source software containing cryptography, which they did in 2000 - The successful cracking of DES likely helped gather both political and technical support for more advanced encryption in the hands of ordinary citizens - NSA considers AES strong enough to protect information classified at the Top Secret level 1996 e-gold 1997 WAP, Wireless Access Point 1997 NSA researchers published how to mint e cash 1997 Adam Back – HashCash – used PoW – coins could only be used once 1997 Nick Szabo – smart contracts “Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks” 1998 OSS, Open-source software Initiative Founded 1998 Wei Dai – B-money – decentralized database to record txs 1998 Bitgold 1998 First backdoor created by hackers from Cult of the Dead Cow 1998 Musk and Thiel founded PayPal 1998 Nick Szabo says crypto can protect land titles even if thugs take it by force – said it could be done with a timestamped database 1999 Much of the Glass-Steagal Act repealed - this saw US retail banks embark on big rounds of mergers and acquisitions and also engage in investment banking activities. 1999 Milton Friedman says, “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government. The one thing that's missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash - a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B without A knowing B or B knowing A.” 1999 European banks began offering mobile banking with the first smartphones 1999 The Financial Services Modernization Act Allows Banks to Grow Even Larger Many economists and politicians have recognized that this legislation played a key part in the subprime mortgage crisis of 2007. 1999-2001 Napster, P2P file sharing – was one of the fastest growing businesses in history – bankrupt for paying musicians for copyright infringement
HODL On: In Defense of Bitcoin's Best Investment Strategy
https://www.coindesk.com/bitcoin-in-defense-of-hodlers/ Steven Hopkins is chief operating officer and general counsel of Medici Ventures, an Overstock.com subsidiary focused on the advancement of blockchain technology. In 1987's Black Monday stock market crash, Sam Walton, the world's richest man, lost more than half a billion dollars in a few hours. When reached for comment, Walton said, "It's paper anyway. As far as I'm concerned we're focusing totally on the company doing well and taking care of our customers." He didn't care about dollars; he cared about his asset Wal-Mart, and he still owned that. History of the #HODL In bitcoin's volatile and roller coaster past, "HODL" was the meme that bound the cryptocurrency community together. It stood for the proposition that we all believe in the future of bitcoin. It's both funny and insightful. Here is the original post by GameKyuubi on a Bitcoin Talk forum (spelling errors and profanity included): I AM HODLING I type d that tyitle twice because I knew it was wrong the first time. Still wrong. w/e. GF's out at a lesbian bar, BTC crashing WHY AM I HOLDING? I'LL TELL YOU WHY. It's because I'm a bad trader and I KNOW I'M A BAD TRADER. Yeah you good traders can spot the highs and the lows pit pat piffy wing wong wang just like that and make a millino bucks sure no problem bro. Likewise the weak hands are like OH NO IT'S GOING DOWN I'M GONNA SELL he he he and then they're like OH GOD MY ASSHOLE when the SMART traders who KNOW WHAT THE FUCK THEY'RE DOING buy back in but you know what? I'm not part of that group. When the traders buy back in I'm already part of the market capital so GUESS WHO YOU'RE CHEATING day traders NOT ME~! Those taunt threads saying "OHH YOU SHOULD HAVE SOLD" YEAH NO SHIT. NO SHIT I SHOULD HAVE SOLD. I SHOULD HAVE SOLD MOMENTS BEFORE EVERY SELL AND BOUGHT MOMENTS BEFORE EVERY BUY BUT YOU KNOW WHAT NOT EVERYBODY IS AS COOL AS YOU. You only sell in a bear market if you are a good day trader or an illusioned noob. The people inbetween hold. In a zero-sum game such as this, traders can only take your money if you sell. so i've had some whiskey actually on the bottle it's spelled whisky w/e sue me (But only if it's payable in BTC) It was not about bitcoin versus bitcoin cash or 1,000 other cryptocurrencies. It was bitcoin vs. the world and we ALL embraced it. It only took 11 minutes for this post to become a meme that became the rallying cry for the entire crypto world. We were all on the same rollercoaster ride and GameKyuubi, in the depths of his frustration, had (sort of) elegantly articulated both what it feels like and the best trading strategy for an asset this volatile. Buy and HODL. The good traders GameKyuubi was wrong about only one thing: There aren't any good traders. There are lots of us who believe we are good traders. But we aren't. Of course, some of the loudest voices on Reddit regularly remind us about how well they time the market. Except when they don't time the market well. A paper published last October by the Haas School of Business at UC Berkeley entitled "Do Day Traders Rationally Learn About Their Ability?" used nearly 15 years of stock market day trading data to conclude that all day traders are irrational, the vast majority of day traders lose money, and even when day traders are successful, they "irrationally attribute success disproportionately to their ability rather than luck." This sounds exactly like the crypto trader. Any post you see mocking HODL is likely someone who thinks they are really smart because they made money by trading crypto last year. Of course, their success was due to their unique trading ability and not the fact that the entire market rose like a rocket. HODLing works Still, empirically, even in volatile assets like bitcoin, carefully choosing an asset and holding long-term positions has proven to offer the best return. Warren Buffett, the most successful investor of modern times, has often said that he only invests in what he knows. His preferred holding period: forever. With that model, his company, Berkshire Hathaway, has averaged a 19 percent annual return since 1965 which means it has risen more than 1 million percent. Theoretical models that assume participants know when markets will move against them can offer better returns but, in practice, market movements cannot be reliably predicted so even when people like Bernie Madoff try to make us think that they've figured it out, they haven't. Long-term investment in quality assets remains the only reliable investment strategy. Simply put, HODLing works. More possibilities For those not interested in limiting their activity to HODLing, there are two new and useful ideas that have begun bouncing around that really do advance cryptocurrencies: #BUIDL and #SPEDN. BUIDL has been used to help remind us that, in the words of a CypherPunk's Manifesto, "Cypherpunks write code." In order for the blockchain to really be useful and valuable, we need to build stuff on it. Watching the price go up and down either as a trader or a HODLer does nothing to make bitcoin work better. We need to create some of the promised applications that can really change the world. To date, the blockchain community has fallen short in this regard outside of the areas of payments but there are some real wins. Just this weekend, Voatz, a Medici Ventures portfolio company is running party county convention voting in Utah, state convention voting in Michigan and state primary voting for overseas and military voters in West Virginia, all on a blockchain platform. Blockchain voting is a simple application, but it is one that can bring a much-needed security and transparency to elections. And we are doing it now. SPEDN is a nod to the many of us who realize that, for bitcoin to be useful, we need to be able to spend it to buy things. And I mean everything. It really doesn't matter whether it is through second-layer solutions like lightning or forks like bitcoin cash; we need more ways to use cryptocurrencies in real-world transactions. A focus here, rather than complaining about HODLers would be helpful. We need many more merchants to accept cryptocurrency before it becomes useful. Options to spend bitcoin remain severely limited in most areas and this will ultimately limit bitcoin's value. As for me, I will HODL until I can buy useful stuff and SPEDN. HODL on This year has seen intense regulatory pressure on cryptocurrencies and its time we stop pretending that HODL was stupid. It isn't and it wasn't. Anyone who doesn't like the HODL mentality needs to give HODLers something else they can do with their bitcoins. Trading is no solution for intelligent people. What we need are new ways to use cryptocurrency. We need BUIDLers and merchants who will let us be SPEDNers.
Predictions on top 5 coins by March 15 2019 after resumption of a real bull market again
I'm not arrogant enough to say an exact price I will think in ranges. I also think the top coins such as supported on GDAX/Coinbase and Gemini/ Circle etc will be the long term winners. I think people overplaying their hand with too many pump and dump coins will be screwed in the end as big money will FLOW HARD into the bigger market cap/proven coins ETH: 2.5k-3k, maybe ALOT more if major companies start buying on the balance sheet to play with and test. This platform and token is KILLER in the end. New plasma news by VB is awewsome. Buy some if you haven't. You're braindead if you don't think their EEA 400+ member list doesn't mean something very special is going on here LTC: 500-1100 . I really think something special could happen here with a starbucks or facebook integration. LTC looks very attractive to some people who want to get into crypto but have the safety of real people/face behind it like Charlie LEE BCH: 3-5k could happen very quickly as most selling was forced selling by the idiot japanese guys. Non stop anti bch shills are also a strong sign to accumulate. They literally have no brain and are like sport fans/tribalists. BCH will pursue colored coins at some point and could be a bridge play for those who love bitcoin system but want more functionality as well as utlility. Lastly, I love that the anarchic spirit of cypherpunks is still being focused on here via VER. BTC: 25k-30K. I'm done with bashing BTC. If core and all you want it to be digital gold with centralized layers/lighthing on it FINE, But do it well and execute on it. Stop bashing other coins as well. The whole one coin thing is stupid man. BTC core actually helped MANY of you make money by slowing down progress, etc in the end BTW, this whole bear market has been about stealing cheap token/coin from you in the end with constant non stop fud and fake trading to scare you out including the ludicrous action by this japanese guy. The new blockchain system is coming and many will choose decentralized future and some will choose centralized systems. Invest for the LT and do it wisely. Invest in the top cryptos. ps: F RIPPLE ps: I can make this post and so can many of you because literally NO ONE we know of any consequence and money is in crypto. Most of the world is broke or huddled into the Stock markets/old fiat system. We know there the puck is going.
Thoughts on ''Relationship between Crypto and Fiat is that of co-existence and not competition''
Thoughts on ''Relationship between Crypto and Fiat is that of co-existence and not competition''
📷 https://coingape.com/vitalik-relationship-between-crypto-and-fiat-is-that-of-co-existence-and-not-competition/ Why people can't see we need both for it to even exist & make sense? BTC and other Open, Public, Decentralized, Free-to-innovate, Permission-less & Censorship-Resistant are simply going to be what the users want them to be. Even in terms of when people say ''when people will stop using BTC and other cryptos as investments or trading or stocks blablabla'' This mentality is not understanding the Network Protocol at all. People are missing the point completely. Neither the goal/point/vision of the internet was what it is today & gonna be tomorrow when it started (even 10-20 years after 1969) The consensus/decentralization point is : if the platform is really Open & Decentralized, the protocol/system/platform is going to be what everyone inside wants it to be. That is the promise of this Bitcoineth and yeah sometimes other shitcoins that might probably all need to go through the ruff path of forking/hacking/ICO-ing/scamming/uninterest followed by boom/constant badnews about terrorists & pornographers using it, before those cryptos obtain more robustness, resilience, privacy-inclusion & predictability maybe more from those events themselves than anything. Some Networks protocols will maybe have only 2 users, or 1 user or all AI users, but yes this system will still matter and will exist in this space (even if only 2 users are using it and selling 100000000's of those coins for 2 pizzas) We can all agree ''Replacing Fiat for Bitcoin'' would be terrible for most people (well maybe for some less terrible in some places than their actual national currency) and that it's the at all the goal of 1 or more Crypto? Don't tell me people won't accept crypto because you can't do this or that with it, it's programmable money. You can multi-sig, LN transact, and do millions of other things we still have no idea about that will happen with further dev. I see adoption as an underlyin technology like the fact Linux is in our cars, thermostat, lawnmoer, vaccum, almost all servers everyone/corporation/government use all across the globe. McDonald did what chefs in restaurant does, but faster and for 1$ a burger and they sold billions. Does that mean chefs across the globe have no jobs anywhere, or that McDonald replaced all chefs? Maybe at a small %, but what really changed that was more automation when it arrived in industrial farms & packaging. Competition is needed in every aspect of our society, but like we know nowadays is protected by massive laws/regulations and governments. Nowadays, tons of users only use ''free'' online services that they pay most of the time with constant micro-violation of their privacy. The point of internet & the funding of AI should not be into pushing more consumerism, it is everything AND that. I don't think a lot of people figured that the internet would create the world we see today. I also not think people saw and opportunity to make everything more efficient in every aspect possible, and that would lead to liberating mankind with AI and by helping people having opportunities. We all know corps & individual use Open Source linux because it is EMPOWERING, not only because it is free. We need to focus on education, the best ''get rich slow scheme'' and work on how we can introduce decentralization of our daily life. I'm seeing interesting things in the Public Health. like it would have been the best thing to do about the internet/phone/automobile & all disruptive tech. lets top thinking about how price/state of cryptos will go to ''this'' or BTC will do ''that'' if Fiat money does this or that. Maybe you or I see crypto as empowering and better than the current system, but this is only because we understand and see what the current system is. This is why it is disruptive, because we can see the infrastructure inversion of security and bettequickemore programabble money, even for financial industries themselves. That's why we should aducate about why most people in the crypto-space since before 2017 worry about non-decentralized cryptocurrencies. (PS: RIP Timothy C. May, go read about the cypherpunk legend and author of the “Crypto Anarchist Manifesto,” has passed away at the age 67. https://www.coindesk.com/cypherpunk-legend-timothy-may-has-passed-away)
Bitcoin Creator and Superagent: What You Should Know About Craig Wright
Recently, it was revealed that Craig Steven Wright, one of the most controversial figures in the crypto community, had filed 114 blockchain patents since 2017. He also quit Twitter, where he would often publish his opinions on anonymity (bad), Bitcoin SV (the real Bitcoin) and other cryptocurrencies (also bad). He is also known for arguing that he is actually Satoshi Nakamoto, the original creator of Bitcoin. Here’s the complete list of things you should know about Wright. Wright’s bio is really rich, but hardly verifiable He was born in October 1970 in Australia, according to registration papers of one of his many companies. As per a Business Insider article citing his now-edited LinkedIn profile, Wright graduated from Brisbane's Padua Catholic College in 1987. In the early 1990s, he worked as a sauce cook, “having trained in French cuisine,” and spent three years working with a catering company. Wright was reportedly studying at the University of Queensland while working as a chef. He initially attended engineering classes, but switched to computer science in his fourth year. In 1996, as per his earlier LinkedIn bio, he began working at Ozemail, where he was "managing a bunch of engineers," thus starting his eventful career in tech. However, according to a 2007 Computerworld article, he began working in IT when he joined K-Mart in 1985 — which would have been even before he finished high school. In April 1997, Wright says he joined the Australian Stock Exchange, maintaining security and firewalls. In November the same year, he launched a company called DeMorgan, described as "a pre-IPO Australian listed company focused on alternative currency, next generation banking and reputational and educational products with a focus on security and creating a simple user experience." In fact, up until July 2015, Morgan was the CEO of about 15 companies. As the Guardian points out, in the space of a week, he resigned as director from Cloudcroft Pty Ltd, Coin-Exch Pty Ltd, Daso Pty Ltd, Demorgan Holdings Pty Ltd, Demorgan Ltd, Denariuz, Ezas Pty Ltd, Integyrz Pty Ltd, Misfit Games Pty Ltd, Interconnected Research Pty Ltd, Zuhl Pty Ltd and Pholus Pty Ltd, and remained the director of just three companies: Hotwire Preemptive Intelligence Pty Ltd, Panopticrypt Pty Ltd and Hotwire PE Employee Share Plan Pty Ltd. Currently, his LinkedIn only features a startup called nChain, where he has allegedly been working as a “chief scientist” since June 2015. Wright seems to be a man of libertarian views. According to the Cypherpunk mailing list archive, in September 1996, Wright wrote that he had developed cancer during his years at university and took a loan to pay for medical treatment because the health insurance didn’t cover it. He then mentioned that he served in the military and worked at a gas station “even though I am an engineer,” adding: “So why and for what reason should I have to pay several 10's of thousands each year to support others. I have never taken help from the government, I do not feel I should have to pay as well. And what am I paying for...to protect the status quo. I believe that there is more than enough help for ppl available. They just need to get off their butts and work.”
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We have observed one of the biggest collapses of the US stock market in recent years. The technological index Nasdaq dropped by 4.43% over just one day. Stay in touch with the current events of the week covered in our analytical report.
We present to you the report filed by the analysts of our private club for October 22–28. Main market events for October 22–28, 2018 1) Bakkt will be launched on December 12 if the regulators grant the permission. 2) Internal sources of the CBOE exchange claim that approval of Bitcoin ETF is inevitable. According to the SEC, VanEck, SolidX and CBOE resolved all the issues and it is only a matter of time before the new asset class is approved. 3) The Department of Financial Services (DFS) of New York has permitted Coinbase to develop Custody. The Bank of Japan admits that the bank may lose a lot of influence due to emergence of cryptocurrencies. $500m worth of USDT have been destroyed (burned) by Tether. 4) The Central Election Commission of Russia supported the initiative of the Party of Growth to run elections in Russia on blockchain, which would prevent doctoring of the results. 5) In June 2019, the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) will start publishing its standards for international regulation of cryptocurrencies. 6) The British audit and consulting company Ernst & Young (EY) conducted a study on the efficiency of 110 ICO projects: only 1 out of 10 tokens managed to bring profit to their owners. 7) Constantinople — the hard fork of Ethereum network — is delayed until the beginning of 2019. The developers made this decision after discovering several bugs when launching the update in the test network. 8) Visa will launch a digital identification system on the B2B Connect blockchain in early 2019. The system would tokenize private information that ensures secure international transactions. 9) The Swiss online bank Swissquote now enables purchasing ICO tokens. You can buy them through an online bank account. Acquired tokens will be stored in a special wallet. 10) HTC has presented the first iteration of the blockchain smartphone Exodus 1 in Berlin. The smartphone is expected to go on sale in 34 countries this December. The device will cost 0.15 BTC or 4.78 ETH. 11) Blockchain platform for distributing video content TaTaTu, which raised $585 million during the ICO, signed an agreement with Johnny Depp. The actor’s film company Infinitum Nihil would produce movies and digital content for TaTaTu. 12) Chairman of the State Duma Committee on the Financial Market Anatoly Aksakov explained that absence of the concepts of “mining” and “bitcoin” in the draft law “On digital financial assets” hints to a “sad” future for cryptocurrencies. 13) The Japan Association of Virtual Currency Exchanges (JVCEA) received the right to self-regulation from the country’s main regulator, the Japan Financial Services Agency (FSA). 14) The Taiwan Financial Supervision Commission will simplify the procedure for launching ICOs in the country and fully legalize them. 15) Tether Limited burned 500 million USDT tokens. The company once again noted that any USDT owner could redeem their tokens with real US dollars that secure the cryptocurrency. 16) The branch of the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission in Shenzhen decreed that the ownership of bitcoins in China should be considered legal. 17) The Ministry of Finance prohibited the British Royal Mint to issue the Royal Mint Gold (RMG) cryptocurrency, backed by gold. 18) Ripple published a financial report for the third quarter of 2018: sales of XRP tokens increased more than twofold and generated revenue of $163.33 million. 19) While the major stock indexes collapsed, Bitcoin continued to stand its ground. This refutes the widespread claims that the price of Bitcoin correlates with traditional finances. It’s worth noting that the current collapse of the US stock market is one of the biggest in recent years. The fall in the Nasdaq technology index, which dropped by 4.43% over the day, was especially disheartening. This is the biggest fall since August 2011. 20) The number of Google search requests for the word “Bitcoin” decreased by 93% compared to last December. This is quite natural, because back then the price of Bitcoin reached its peak. 2. Market analysis from club experts for October 22–28, 2018 The last week was hardly surprising for crypto traders and investors. Volatility, pumps/dumps, despair and enthusiasm — all the usual stuff. Compared to the stock market though, the waves of the crypto market begin to look pale sometimes. The total capitalization remained in the $208–211 billion corridor for the entire week, despite the worries. Trading volumes were also fairly stable: $9–11 billion. BTC dominated the market at 54% without deviations, although the Altcoins performed very good. In the end of the week, the price for 1 BTC remained the same: $6480 on Monday and Sunday, though it fluctuated between $6380 and $6540 ($6478 at the time of the report) during the week. However, the last week showed a strong growth of a number of coins, despite the price of BTC, and many coins skyrocketed from the levels below TOP100 CMC. Last week the stock market experienced a rather sharp fall, and according to reports, a number of stocks have incomparably higher volatility than many coins from TOP100. The general sentiment makes it clear that cryptographic market is gaining increasingly more attention of institutional traders and very soon trading instruments will be available through a single terminal in any market. In the meantime, the blockchain technology and cryptocurrency are gaining momentum in the world, and that’s great! Though some cypherpunks are not happy about this! 3. Changes in the cost and capitalization of the TOP-10 cryptocurrencies in the period of October 22–28, 2018 https://preview.redd.it/91fmpru2t5v11.jpg?width=681&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=91c4bc7dca5190cf8bf6c326bdae5d1f32002df4 4. TOP-3 growing coins from the long-term portfolio for October 22–28, 2018 (including portfolio updates) The fastest growing portfolio coins: IOTeX + 50% (), Neblio NEBL + 40% (), Decred DCR + 15% (listing on Binance). The worst performing coin is Mysterium MYST -28% — correction of the growth during the last week. Want to be the first to receive news, updates from analysts and trade signals? Join @gitsupport channel and start earning with us!
Hello! My name is Alexey Adylshin, I am backend developer at Platinum, the largest listing service provider for the STO and ICO projects. We know how to start ICO/STO campaign in 2019 and make it successful! Already planning your own campaign? It’s a great reason to visit our site: Platinum.fund We not only make cool promotions, but also develop fundamental courses for those who are willing to know all about crypto-economics. That’s why we created the UBAI, where you can learn how to do STO/ICO and become real professional! Today I want to tell you about popular ICO business modules and blockchain use cases. Trust & Reputation in the Blockchain Industry Personal trust matters a lot in the Blockchain Industry. The investors, team members, advisors or exchange staff may know each other from working together on other projects. It is important you conduct yourself in a professional manner and treat people the way you want to be treated. Maybe we can say the crypto world was first populated by computer geeks and cypherpunks in hoodies. And that is perfectly okay; but it surely has evolved since then. The culture is more complex today. Serious money is involved. Sophisticated investors and money managers command large pools of capital. Everyone has expectations of an appropriate degree of professionalism. Your reputation, behavior, and character are important. You clearly want to distinguish yourself from any of the scammers and frauds in the Blockchain industry. Major Roles in the Blockchain Industry There are many specific job titles in the industry. We will focus on the major ones. But you will most likely wear a few different hats anyway. Just like in the real world, you will have to do different jobs at different times. Broadly speaking, there are seven major roles in the Blockchain Industry relating to ICOs: -Legal. -Marketing/PR. -Accounting. -Financial. -Business Development. -Advisors. -Technical Experts. There are of course many other roles covering every imaginable area, just as in the traditional world. But it is most important to focus on roles as they relate to ICOs. Legal In the blockchain industry, it is the responsibility of legal to ensure compliance with all contractual and statutory requirements in each jurisdiction. Even though it can be said that crypto and blockchain are still unregulated in some cases, and inappropriately/ineffectively regulated by traditional banking or securities laws in other cases, there are significant and unavoidable legal implications of using blockchain technology. Consider the digital enabled signature legislation. This enables digital signatures to be recognized internationally, thereby validating and authenticating transactions. Nevertheless, some transactions are still accompanied by other legal documents as well. Someone must be responsible for any such legal functions. And someone must also perform as an advocate and representative for the project. The legal advisor will typically come from a background of legal practice in his or her own jurisdiction. They can often provide a bridge to the traditional business world. Lawyers are generally paid just as well in Blockchain as they are in traditional business, though they probably have greater freedom and flexibility in here in crypto. Marketing/PR The role of Marketers and PR professionals closely mirror that of real world marketers and PR pros. Their primary role is to increase public awareness about the ICO project, and shape the narrative of the company. Primarily they will highlight the key benefits of the company solution and ensure this information is presented to the most important people. Marketing/PR in the crypto world is almost entirely digital. Social Media, Telegram Channels, Medium Blog Posts, Email Marketing, etc. are all the main forums and means of professional communication in crypto. Marketing/PR individuals are typically compensated based on their experience and contribution to the company. A marketer who is able to demonstrate significant upticks in engagement, investor interest, etc. will of course be paid well. Marketers who command a valuable audience will demand a greater fee. This role is one of the most sought-after and well-paid, due to the great amount of “noise” considered appropriate in the cryptocurrency industry. Accounting Accounting roles are responsible for managing company finances, just like in traditional business. They do all bookkeeping work involving cryptocurrency transactions, as well as basic fiat currency transactions, and any exchange interactions and other transactions. Projects utilize major accounting software like QuickBooks, software which allows for computerized accounting, and payroll professionals, to perform regular tasks involving invoices, sales, purchasing records, and balance sheet reporting. Just like in a traditional organization, the accounting team monitors and maintains records of all financial transactions and investments. They ensure that specified budgets are followed and expenses are not surpassed. In so doing, they keep project expenses in-line with company objectives. They also might identify or evaluate business opportunities, and advise the project team about such investment ideas. They will often be compensated based upon experience and the significance of their particular contribution to the project. Financial A financial role in an ICO company can be one of the most engaging, but can come with great responsibility. Your role will focus predominantly on the management of company finances. That is a purposely general description because it is a position that covers a broad range of responsibilities. One day you might be coordinating with the founders and the business development advisors about the business model and the direction of the project. The next day you may be helping the founders explain to seed investors why you need capital to remain solvent. Then you may be tasked with investing the funds raised from the ICO into other cryptocurrencies to diversify the risk profile of the company finances. In the traditional market, finance jobs are very well remunerated. In the cryptocurrency space, you are of course rewarded based on your experience and contribution. However, the amount of responsibility you take, and your ability to be flexible and quick on your feet, can often command premium compensation. Business Development Blockchain business development professionals perform a variety of roles, typically structured around strategy and business ideas. Business development individuals will usually collaborate with every member of the team. Their contribution is not strictly defined by any kind of tangible work, such as writing code or producing graphic design, but rather by the idea of creating a general direction and manner in which the business can achieve its vision. They are responsible for structuring the company’s model, its roll-out plans and key objectives along the timeline. Often the founders of the company will be the ones to focus on Business Development because they have the strongest grasp of the magnitude and nuances of the project and its product. Business Development professionals also are often remunerated based on relevant experience, and their contribution to the project. Advisors Businesses that intend to launch new blockchain projects frequently seek guidance from more experienced advisors. These are people who can offer first-hand information, direction and contact with relevant parties. This kind of advice and ability to give you introductions can be crucial to the success of your project. The role of advisors cannot be easily overstated. The title may sound vague and ambiguous, because it is. But it is a role that covers a lot of very important areas. An ICO might have great financial wizards on its team. They might be incredibly talented at creating their unique product, ecosystem and solution. They have their Blockchain technical expert who can replicate and create the system on the Blockchain to anchor their project. But without effective marketing, without connections to investors, traditional companies, and governments, the whole project is dead in the water. Advisors play a crucial role. It is a role that should be appreciated, and used for all it is worth. In the Blockchain industry, we broadly define and divide advisors into two major categories, Portfolio Advisors and Domain Experts. Major Roles in the Blockchain Industry Portfolio Advisors : Would not contribute strategy or give serious feedback as much as help facilitate good personal interaction with the press and other key partners. A Portfolio Advisor can also be an invaluable conduit to explain things to investors or the press. The Advisor is a good person to explain team decisions in the event of both good and bad news. Crypto and Blockchain projects use advisors to improve their business reputation and industry image, and to make their ICO company appear more serious and professional than it would otherwise appear. As mentioned, the advisor does not necessarily do any actual work such as coding. The Portfolio Advisor is more of a figurehead and professional conduit for the ICO, with a wide range of advisory functions and roles. Compensation for the Portfolio Advisor is often directly proportional to the specific utility to the company or the size of the role. An advisor who brings in half of your ICO funding in pre-sale will of course demand a much larger fee than someone who simply connects you with a few partners who might possibly be useful sometime in the future. A good advisor can earn up to tens of thousands of dollar, or even more. On the other hand, Domain Experts provide the kind of input you would expect. They give practical and strategic direction to help the business be more successful and achieve its objectives in a timely fashion. These advisors can be expert in Cryptocurrency or expert in another related specialty. Typically, Domain Experts will already have significant exposure to the cryptocurrency industry, and a valuable understanding of how things operate. Although, due to the rapid growth in the industry, there are many new advisors and experts specifically brought in for a particular reason, so it may in fact be their first interaction with a Blockchain company. Domain Experts could have experience as diverse as healthcare, finance or gaming. Generally speaking, their contribution to the team will be focused solely within their area of expertise. As with Portfolio Advisors, Domain experts are compensated based on their experience and specific contribution to the project. But many ICOs will try to bring the two roles together. They will ask a well-known, highly-regarded Domain Expert to also appear on the website and help build the overall professionalism and reputation for their project, just like the Portfolio Advisor would do, as well as contribute their Domain Expert knowledge to the project. Technical Experts Did you know that there are certified blockchain experts (CBE)? The Blockchain Council is a certifying body that helps businesses, developers, and all interested individuals to become educated about the Blockchain industry. Technical Experts are specialists with in-depth knowledge and understanding of what the Blockchain is and how it can be utilized by businesses to maximize their potential. They are often the individuals who design the framework of the Blockchain solution, write the associated code, and debug as necessary. These experts are also able to certify other individuals in the Blockchain discipline of Distributed Ledger Technology from a vendor-neutral perspective. One of the most notable technical experts in the Blockchain network, is the well-known creator of Ethereum, Vitalik Buterin. Vitalik Buterin created Ethereum, and ETH, the world’s second most valuable, massively traded cryptocurrency. In 2011, the team founded the Bitcoin magazine which publishes information about the Blockchain technology. Exchanges While not a part of our original list of positions and functions, Exchanges perform a central role with every ICO and Blockchain solution. If you are an ICO company and want to facilitate a market for your token (you always do, your investors will demand it) then you need the exchanges to provide this service. Exchanges, as we have discussed before, provide the market, the liquidity and the compliance with the necessary regulation/KYC requirements. After the ICO fundraising has been completed, the company’s token/coin begins trading on an exchange. Working on an exchange is another important career option in crypto that should not be overlooked. Exchange professionals may not earn as much as some of the other positions, (unless they also own an equity stake in the exchange), but they are still well-compensated for their technical knowledge and the sensitive nature of their job. The Interaction of the Roles People in all of the positions and roles we are talking about will need to work together and communicate with each other at various times. To start and grow a company from an idea or vision, to a tangible thing, is quite a tricky feat. Sometimes the technical experts will need to sit down and explain something to the business developers. The marketers might need clarification how the underlying technology works. Similar to real-world business, something many of us already know from experience, the management structure of a company plays a large role in how people in different positions interact while performing their jobs. If the company is particularly hierarchical, management might insist on going through specific touchpoints when sharing information, thereby allowing management to add their own input. Other companies will be comfortable with marketers and technical developers just speaking amongst themselves to achieve the agreed upon end goals of the business. Cryptocurrency projects often tend to become a special collection of especially talented people from all over the world. Management takes on a somewhat different role in the cryptocurrency space. It is important when you start on a project to be clear about how you should communicate with other team members, the channels of communication and the expected manner of interaction too. Some teams prefer to keep things quite informal, sharing gifs and memes to each other, while others prefer conversation on company channels and a strictly professional style. Pre, During & Post ICO Business Roles Pre-ICO Launch This period is the same for all new companies. This is when the foundation of the business is formed. The idea is validated. Initial development begins, and the team is assembled to start building the company. For an ICO destined company, this period includes where the idea is placed upon the Blockchain, and the use case created. Ideally, the idea should require the Blockchain to function, or at the very least, require Blockchain technology as the most suitable option. One of the first things an investor should do when they look at your project, is evaluate the need for a Blockchain solution. That is exactly what you should do first too. Your team should thoroughly inspect all possible technology options to equip your business with the best framework or “backbone”. You should look to justify the positives and negatives of each framework before landing on the most suitable solution. For an ICO, this needs to be a Blockchain based solution. Pre-ICO Launch The next step is of course researching the competition. With so many ICOs recently it is important to consider who else is active in this space. Who has had or done the same idea before? How is your company different? Why should someone invest money in your company, in your idea, as opposed to the other available options? You should then identify the major challenges your business is going to face. The application of Blockchain technology is so wide and organic to a lot of industries, it’s important to fully analyze and develop your idea for the real world. Do not just assume the Blockchain is going to do anything you want and solve every problem for you. After identifying your needs and challenges, the next step is to look for information about Blockchain technology that does solve your specific problem. This is often a combination of a few different roles working together. Your business development, technical specialist, and marketer as well as perhaps your financial people should all be involved. All positions can and should conduct research, envision areas of opportunity, and predict associated challenges to be met. After doing their research, your team should be able to make an intelligent decision on the path to take. You should have a good sense of where that leaves you, from a business development standpoint, a technical standpoint, and a fund-raising standpoint as well. At this point, you will need to organize and arrange all of your business roles and services to suit the company’s direction from now on. You are also likely to need to bring new people onboard to continue to grow and progress down your chosen path. During the pre-ICO launch, a timeframe is set with company goals. One of the components of a pre-ICO launch is to design and launch your website, which serves as the point where investors go to obtain information about the project. Basically, the website will provide a link to the whitepaper, it will show the members of the team, and it will show the timeline of the project. The success of any pre-ICO launch depends on how well the project is able to pitch to investors about the necessity of the product and the use case of the Blockchain. All of this information is normally available on the project website, and it serves a dual purpose, the latter being a Marketing strategy. The website provides an extremely useful central point of focus for everyone. Your marketers can use the website to refer investors or potential team members. Your company can use your website in meetings with partners, advisors and regulators to demonstrate authenticity and professionalism. You have formed your team and your idea. You have made an operational website and a full series of marketing materials. You are ready to present your idea to the world. In the cryptocurrency world, this involves placing ICO announcements on websites specifically targeted toward cryptocurrency investors and professionals. Utilizing social media like LinkedIn and Medium will enable you to reach out to more people and increase participation and hype surrounding your pre-ICO launch. During the ICO, your project would have generated tokens which will be used in exchange for Bitcoins, etc. Creating a token virtually means producing an asset that your business needs to survive, an asset with which it can conduct transactions. Tokens can represent digital coins, loyalty points, gold certificates, IOU’s, in-game items. The majority of tokens should perhaps not be thought of as shares in a company, as in a traditional IPO, but rather as utility tokens with a value dependent upon and derived from the token’s utilization in the company solution. Some projects will begin to sell these tokens (usually a specified amount) during the pre-ICO period, typically in what is called a “pre-sale”. Pre-sale tokens are usually offered to team members, advisors, large investors, key partners, etc. as a way to both invest in the future of the company, and to reward the people involved. The pre-sale tokens are almost always offered at a discount, and come with a vesting schedule. A projects’ next step will then be contacting and building relationships with exchanges. As previously discussed, the cryptocurrency exchange provides the means through which people are able to buy and sell the project tokens on the open market. Recognition and acceptance by the largest and most reputable exchanges matters a lot. Being listed is an efficient way to raise funds, attract new investors, and incentivize your current investors. Many investors will require you to detail your plans for getting listed on an exchange before they even invest in the pre-sale. Investors will not see any value if there is no listing, no exchange, and therefore no liquidity for that token. During an ICO A comprehensive list of exchanges can be found on Best Bitcoin Exchange. Most tokens will also be listed on CoinMarketCap, which is essentially a stock ticker of token sales. Tokens are listed and ranked according to the success of their ICO project. When an ICO project begins to fail, or fall below target, its ranking on the list decreases and ends up at the bottom, or the token becomes delisted entirely. The actual process of listing a coin on an exchange varies significantly by the site. Most exchanges like Bittrex and Poloniex strictly forbid tokens that could be considered a security. Building hype during an ICO project is all about gaining popularity. With the large number of ICO projects coming up every day, you need an effective strategy to help your ICO project stand out. A strong Marketing & PR team should be focused on the main avenues of communication. Identifying avenues of Communication The first step is to identify the best social media channels to reach out to a large number of relevant audiences. Twitter and Facebook are most often used to advertise projects. Facebook offers various opportunities you would not want to neglect. Browse through different Facebook communities, as well as web resources like helpareporter.com, those frequented by experts, journalists, etc. in order to understand the message content they like to see and the information they think is important. Being in Touch with the Audience After you have identified your audience, maintain contact with them before the ICO, and throughout the entire process. Slack and Telegram are two extremely common ways to stay in touch with your investors and the community at large. You may also use forums like Bitcointalk and Reddit. It could be very wise to hire a specialist to engage in discussions about your project at this point. A forum debate is valuable interaction with the audience allowing you to get feedback from investors in the ICO and future users of your product. Create a Bounty Program A Bounty program is a strong and powerful means to build hype for the ICO project. It is an effective way to attract the attention of investors to your ICO; and a good rewards program to incentivize freelancers to promote your project out into their network. Rewarding users for signature campaigns on bitcointalk, email subscriptions or blog posts may be some of the best ways to broaden your investor audience. Investor Roadshows During this period of building hype for your ICO, you can identify and meet with potential investors in your project. This is a crucial step for your ICO and is incredibly important. This should in fact become top-priority for all of your team members. Investors will want to talk with every member of the team and ask very specific questions relevant to their domain of knowledge. The investors are thinking about their return. It is important to develop a profession level presentation. Clearly define expectations for the project. Illustrate your projections with good charts and visual aids supported by relevant independent analysis as much as possible. Be prepared. This information should be available to you at any time. You should always be ready to deliver a sophisticated presentation to potential investors. It is also smart to talk about other ways an investor will benefit from your project, other than the financial gains. You can think about it, and research for good ideas. At this stage, it is also important you already know what the hardcap of your coin will be, as well as its circulation. This amount should be fixed and specified before you launch your ICO. The coin distribution can never exceed this specified amount. There are three key attributes which investors assess before investing in an ICO. Circulating Supply This is the number of coins that have been freely floated and are available in the market. In some instances, projects could have all their tokens pre-mined, and released all at once through the ICO. The circulating supply will, therefore, be the same as the maximum supply. Other times, tokens have to be mined over time, or coins are released on a specified schedule. As discussed earlier, this strategy can help maintain the value of the coin. Total Supply This is the number of coins that actually exist, including the ones that are not in circulation. Why would coins exist but not be in circulation? It could be for a number of reasons. A team might have mined coins but held them back without putting them on the market. Team members, advisors and pre-sale investors are required to hold their portion of the ICO for a specified number of months to prevent coins being dumped at listing. The coins, therefore, exist, but are not yet in circulation. Maximum Supply This is also known as the hardcap. This number is of paramount importance because this is the maximum number of coins that will ever be created (Bitcoin’s hardcap is 21,000,000 tokens.). Not all cryptocurrencies have a hard cap. Ethereum, for example, has no maximum supply limit of Ether. Why is the hardcap important? There are two fundamental reasons to support an established hardcap. The first has to do with scarcity. Just like diamonds. They are not only valuable for their beauty and strength. They are also valuable precisely because they are scarce. The scarcer they are, the more valuable they become. It’s the same with cryptocurrencies, simple supply and demand. If there is a finite supply of a particular token, the value of the coin is likely to increase over time. This will in turn ensure the integrity and value of the underlying network. When the hardcap is extremely low, you won’t be able to obtain enough funds to develop and grow the network. On the other hand, if the network is flooded with tokens that don’t have a purpose because the hardcap is excessively high, the value of the coin will become diluted, causing a drop in the integrity and value of the network. The second reason the hardcap is important is closely connected to the project roadmap. For every amount raised, the startup should make sure there is an explicit and concise purpose for those funds. Basically, “if we raise so much, then this is the plan. If we raise more, than this is this plan, and this is how we will use the funds raised.” However, we’ve seen projects raising hundreds of millions of dollars with no set objective of what to do with all that money. There have been instances of startups setting a funding target of $20 million, but then they go on to raise over $200 million because they didn’t set a hardcap. That means there is no predetermined plan for the excess $180 million. Post ICO After the successful completion an ICO, it is time to kick-start the project. Immediately execute plans from the white paper and purchase lists. Move as quickly as possible to bring your company to life. Let’s take another look at an example of a successful ICO we have discussed before. Tezos The project was able to generate a total of $232million within three months of the ICO launch. The token created for the project was called ‘XTZ’ and the value for one XTZ was evaluated at: ICO Token Price: 1 XTZ = $0.47 XTZ token price max = $11.21 XTZ token price min = $1.76 XTZ token price to 07/01/2018 = $5.82 Returns since ICO (USD): +1,138% Tezos After the successful completion of the ICO launch, Tezos quickly activated their technology which is intended to compete with Ethereum, and simplify launches for new projects. Nevertheless, the project encountered a major setback. Two lawsuits were filed against Tezos claiming they violated both US Federal and State law. The Tezos tokens were qualified as securities. Therefore, by not registering them as securities, the company violated the securities laws. The project was also accused of fraud based on the premise that the tokens had been distributed under the pretense of being charitable contributions. Bancor The Bancor ICO project was aimed at introducing a convenient way to issue smart-tokens and convert them without a counterparty. After the ICO, the project made some good progress, launching its app in beta mode. Presently, the app has been fully developed such that it is able to convert 14 cryptocurrencies including ETH and BTN tokens. The ICO raised $153million from the sale of their tokens. The breakdown of the value of the token during ICO and after is shown below: ICO Token Price: 1 BNT = $3.92 • BNT token price max = $8.17 • BNT token price min = $1.52 • BNT token price 07/01/2018 = $8.17 Some projects, like Bancor, remain successful after their ICO; while some, like Tezos, fail. It is not enough to plan for an ICO project simply by investing in publicity and token sales. The team must continually try to keep up with and surpass the competition, and give more value to the investors. A basic way to add value is to increase the exchange rate or price of the token. Investors and team members earn greater returns, and the project always stays above breakeven. For a project token to increase in value, there has to be more demand for it in a free market, relative to a given supply. It is important to have a clear understanding of how your token will likely be received, traded and supported throughout each stage of the ICO process. In the Post-ICO stage, the financers and founders of the company will usually begin to manage and assess how best to support the token price. Here are some common strategies and ideas: Token Cap: The easiest way to support the token price is to reduce the number of tokens in circulation. Putting a cap on a token means placing a limit on the number of tokens that are available. As the supply of tokens is reduced, the demand for the token increases and the value of the token goes up. Token Buy Back: just as the name signifies, the team members can unanimously agree to buy up all or most of the company tokens that are still in circulation. When they have done that, they can either burn or destroy the tokens. The of course reduces the number of tokens in circulation and subsequently increases the value of the floating tokens. This kind of buy back can be taken as a continuous course of action, or be used as a one-time way to boost the token value. Token creation by Third Parties: Team members can also brainstorm for other ways to increase or restrict the supply of more tokens to the market. One way tokens are created is via mining. When a project makes mining the main way to increase the supply of tokens for their project, that is perceived as more difficult and restrictive, limiting the rate of increase in supply on the open market, therefore increasing the demand for that token. Token creation by the Project: A project can simply choose to create more tokens when necessary. For example, when the token value has become so high that the users do not use it anymore for the services offered. This action is not generally recommended. It not only burns earlier investors by diluting the value of their current holdings, but also bodes poorly for the future (you might just keep minting new coins). Generally, to increase the demand for a token, the services offered by the project can be made more valuable to the users. That will generate higher demand. The more investors make use of the services and pay with the project tokens, the higher the token value will be. Involvement in the Blockchain Industry After you have some ideas which role or position might be best for you, you can start to network and search for opportunities in the crypto ecosystem. It is not enough to be an accountant, an economist or a business development professional in the traditional world. You need to know about the Blockchain industry as well. Remember, in the Blockchain industry, your reputation is everything. You want a strong social media presence. A professional profile on LinkedIn. Published articles if you have them. When you start talking to projects, you want to have a solid understanding of who you are and what you can do in crypto and Blockchain. The best way to get experience and become a part of your first ICO project is either: Volunteering: gets you into the industry. At first, you might want to care less about what is in it for you, and just get your foot in the door. If possible, you can volunteer for a role in an ICO project you really want to work at. Direct Networking: is a loose term that simply means you contact projects and ask about what is going on. Many projects are run by very digitally savvy individuals. Just asking for a job opportunity is likely to leave you disappointed (unless they happen to actually be in need of your exact talents at that time! In which case asking for work is the smarted thing you could ever do). Try to be useful, become friends, or associates. Help a team member anyway you can and see if an opportunity arises from that. That’s not all! You can get better understanding of major roles in the blockchain Industry from ICO teams through to solidity developers. Follow the link to read our lesson on the topic: UBAI.co Contact me via Facebook to know more about Platinum services and the UBAI courses: Facebook
Bitcoin and the Rise of the Cypherpunks. While many of the innovations in the space are new, they’re built on decades of work that led to this point. By tracing this history, we can understand the motivations behind the movement that spawned bitcoin and share its vision for the future. Jameson Lopp. Read more posts by this author. Jameson Lopp. 9 Apr 2016 • 15 min read. From bitcoin to ... CoinDesk contributor Jameson Lopp traces the history of the cypherpunks, the band of innovators whose beliefs helped inspire the bitcoin movement. Cypherpunk Holdings enables you to invest in bitcoin and privacy tech. We are listed on the Canadian Securities Exchange (CSE) under the ticker HODL. Find out more here … So beginnt das Manifest der Cypherpunks. Wer verstehen will, welch Geistes Kind Bitcoin ist, kommt um das Phänomen Cypherpunk nicht umhin. Gegründet 1992 von Eric Hughes, Timothy May und John ... How the Cypherpunks may have created Bitcoin By applying cryptography to personal computers and the internet, Cypherpunks launched a widespread movement of open-sourced cryptography research. This research took nearly 20 years but in 2009 it gave rise to the first public cryptocurrency; Bitcoin and introduced the concept of blockchain to a wider audience.
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